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Kraak V.I.,Deakin University | Harrigan P.B.,Nutrition | Lawrence M.,Deakin University | Harrison P.J.,Deakin University | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2012

Objective Transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies, and their corporate foundations, may be potential collaborators to help address complex public health nutrition challenges. While UN system guidelines are available for private-sector engagement, non-governmental organizations (NGO) have limited guidelines to navigate diverse opportunities and challenges presented by partnering with these companies through public-private partnerships (PPP) to address the global double burden of malnutrition.Design We conducted a search of electronic databases, UN system websites and grey literature to identify resources about partnerships used to address the global double burden of malnutrition. A narrative summary provides a synthesis of the interdisciplinary literature identified.Results We describe partnership opportunities, benefits and challenges; and tools and approaches to help NGO engage with the private sector to address global public health nutrition challenges. PPP benefits include: raising the visibility of nutrition and health on policy agendas; mobilizing funds and advocating for research; strengthening food-system processes and delivery systems; facilitating technology transfer; and expanding access to medications, vaccines, healthy food and beverage products, and nutrition assistance during humanitarian crises. PPP challenges include: balancing private commercial interests with public health interests; managing conflicts of interest; ensuring that co-branded activities support healthy products and healthy eating environments; complying with ethical codes of conduct; assessing partnership compatibility; and evaluating partnership outcomes.Conclusions NGO should adopt a systematic and transparent approach using available tools and processes to maximize benefits and minimize risks of partnering with transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies to effectively target the global double burden of malnutrition. © 2011 The Authors.

Koletzko B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Bauer C.P.,Fachklinik Gaissach | Bung P.,Gynecology Clinic | Cremer M.,Nutrition Consultant | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Diet and physical activity before and during pregnancy affect short- and long-term health of mother and child. The energy needs at the end of pregnancy increase only by about 10% compared to nonpregnant women. An excessive energy intake is undesirable since maternal overweight and excessive weight gain can increase the risks for a high birth weight and later child overweight and diabetes. Maternal weight at the beginning of pregnancy is especially important for pregnancy outcome and child health. Women should strive to achieve normal weight already before pregnancy. Regular physical activity can contribute to a healthy weight and to the health of pregnant women. The need for certain nutrients increases more than energy requirements. Before and during pregnancy, foods with a high content of essential nutrients should be preferentially selected. Supplements should include folic acid and iodine, iron (in case of suboptimal iron stores), the ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (in case of infrequent consumption of ocean fish) and vitamin D (in case of decreased sun exposure and decreased endogenous vitamin D synthesis). Pregnant women should not smoke and not stay in rooms where others smoke or have smoked before (passive smoking). Alcohol consumption should be avoided, since alcohol can harm unborn children. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Menon P.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Covic N.M.,North West University South Africa | Harrigan P.B.,Nutrition | Horton S.E.,University of Waterloo | And 5 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2014

Undernutrition among women and children contributes to almost half the global burden of child mortality in developing countries. The impact of nutrition on economic development has highlighted the need for evidence-based solutions and yielded substantial global momentum. However, it is now recognized that the impact of evidence-based interventions is limited by the lack of evidence on the best operational strategies for scaling up nutrition interventions. With the goal of encouraging greater engagement in implementation research in nutrition and generating evidence on implementation and utilization of nutrition interventions, this paper brings together a framework and a broad analysis of literature to frame and highlight the crucial importance of research on the delivery and utilization of nutrition interventions. The paper draws on the deliberations of a high-level working group, an e-consultation, a conference, and the published literature. It proposes a framework and areas of research that have been quite neglected, and yet are critical to better understanding through careful research to enable better translation of global and national political momentum for nutrition into public health impact. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

Maimoun L.,CHRU Montpellier | Maimoun L.,Montpellier University | Mura T.,CHRU Montpellier | Leprieur E.,Nutrition | And 4 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2016

Background: Obesity improves areal bone mineral density (aBMD). However, it is unknown whether gender, ageing or the severity of obesity couldmodulate this effect andwhether different bone sites are similarly affected. Objective: The aimof this observational study was to model the aBMD variation in obese patients from peak bone period to old age according to gender, bone localisation and severity of obesity. Subjects and methods: Five hundred and four obese patients (363 women, 72%) with a mean BMI of 38.5 ± 6.0 kg/m2, aged from 18.1 to 81.9 years (mean age 49.6 ± 14.6 years) were recruited. The whole body (WB), hip, lumbar spine (L1-L4) and one-third radius aBMDswere determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: Z-scores were significantly increased, above the age- and gender-related mean, both for women and men at WB (respectively 0.79 SD and 0.32 SD), hip (1.09 SD and 1.06 SD), one-third radius (1.70 SD and 0.45 SD) and L1-L4 levels (0.86 SD for women only). The improvement of Z-scores was significantly more marked in women compared to men at all bone sites, hip excepted. Furthermore, differences compared with normal values were significantly accentuated by ageing, without noticeable gender effect. In women, regardless of BMI and bone site, Z-scores were higher than normal values, this difference being most marked at WB, L1-L4 and hip levels for obese patients with a BMI above 40 kg/m2. Lean mass, but not fat mass, was independently associated with aBMD in men and women. Conclusion: This study demonstrated for the first time that obesity induces an improvement of aBMD, which is modulated by bone site location, severity of obesity, age and gender. The accentuation of peak bone mass combinedwith a reduction of bone loss rate with ageing may explainwhy obese patients present a lower prevalence of osteoporosis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Holway F.E.,Nutrition | Spriet L.L.,University of Guelph
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2011

Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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