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Malaunay, France

Adu-Afarwuah S.,University of Ghana | Lartey A.,University of Ghana | Zeilani M.,Nutriset SAS | Dewey K.G.,University of California at Davis
Maternal and Child Nutrition

Inadequate micronutrient intake during pregnancy, lactation and infancy is a major problem in many developing countries. Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) can improve micronutrient status, growth and development of infants, and also have potential to improve nutritional status of pregnant and lactating women. The objective of the study was to test the acceptability of LNS designed for infants (LNS-20gM) and pregnant or lactating women (LNS-P&L). Participants were infants (n=22, mean age=8 months) and pregnant or lactating women (n=24) attending routine services at a hospital in Ghana. Infants consumed 45g of a test meal consisting of one part LNS-20gM and three parts fermented maize porridge, while women consumed 50g of a similar test meal containing LNS-P&L instead. Participants also used their respective LNS at home for 14 days. Primary outcome was the proportion of the test meal consumed. On average, infants consumed 76.2% of the test meal [95% (confidence interval) CI: 65.7, 86.7], while women consumed 87.1% (95% CI: 82.6, 91.6). During the 14-day period, median daily consumption of LNS-20gM was 19.3g, very close to the recommended 20gd -1, while that of LNS-P&L was one sachet, as recommended. We conclude that LNS-20gM and LNS-P&L were well accepted. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Phuka J.,University of Malawi | Ashorn U.,University of Tampere | Ashorn P.,University of Tampere | Zeilani M.,Nutriset SAS | And 5 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition

We tested the acceptability of three new lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) in two independent phases among 18 8-12-month-old healthy rural Malawians and their caregivers. In phase 1, acceptability was assessed by offering three new LNSs in random order, and an LNS already determined to be acceptable, Nutributter ®, each added to 30g of warm maize porridge over three consecutive days. In phase 2, infants from each village were provided one of the new supplements for a 2-week home-use trial. Outcome measures included the amount consumed, time completion of the dose and the maternal rating of likeability on a 5-point scale. The supplements were rated acceptable if consumption was over 50% of the offered dose in phase 1. The mean (95% confidence interval) proportion of the LNS test meals consumed under direct observation was 88% (82-94%) for LNS-10gM, 90% (84-95%) for LNS-20gM, 87% (79-95%) for LNS-20gNoM, and 86% (83-90%) for Nutributter. The median (25th and 75th centile) time (minutes) for completing the offered test meal was 4 (2, 7) for LNS-10gM, 5 (3, 6) for LNS-20gM, 4 (3, 8) for LNS-20gNoM and 4 (2, 6) for Nutributter. During both phases, almost all caregivers rated all study foods very likeable for themselves and their children, with mean scores slightly lower among the caregivers than among the infants. In the home-use phase, the test foods were almost exclusively used by the study participants with minimal sharing with siblings and other household members. Some infants were reported to prefer the new investigational products over traditional complementary food. Considering that the novel LNS was largely acceptable. Efficacy trials are now needed to assess their impact on child growth and development. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Osendarp S.,Micronutrient Initiative | Rogers B.,Tufts University | Ryan K.,University of Washington | Manary M.,University of Washington | And 8 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Ready-to-use foods are one of the available strategies for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), but challenges remain in the use of these products in programs at scale. This paper focuses on two challenges: the need for cheaper formulations using locally available ingredients that are processed in a safe, reliable, and financially sustainable local production facility; and the effective use of these products in large-scale communitybased programs. Linear programming tools can be used successfully to design local compositions that are in line with international guidelines, low in cost, and acceptable, and the efficacy of these local formulations in the treatment of MAM was recently demonstrated in Malawi. The production of local formulations for programs at scale relies on the existence of a reliable and efficient local production facility. Technical assistance may be required in the development of sustainable business models at an early stage in the process, taking into account the stringent product quality and safety criteria and the required investments. The use of ready-to-use products, as of any food supplement, in programs at scale will be affected by the practice of household sharing and diversion of these products for other uses. Additional measures can be considered to account for sharing. These products designed for the treatment and prevention of MAM are to be used in community-based programs and should therefore be used in conjunction with other interventions and designed so that they do not replace the intake of other foods and breastmilk. Remaining challenges and implications for the (operations) research agenda are discussed. Copyright © 2015 International Atomic Energy Agency. Source

Arimond M.,University of California at Davis | Zeilani M.,Nutriset SAS | Jungjohann S.,Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition | Brown K.H.,University of California at Davis | And 4 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition

The International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project began in 2009 with the goal of contributing to the evidence base regarding the potential of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to prevent undernutrition in vulnerable populations. The first project objective was the development of acceptable LNS products for infants 6-24 months and for pregnant and lactating women, for use in studies in three countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana and Malawi). This paper shares the rationale for a series of decisions in supplement formulation and design, including those related to ration size, ingredients, nutrient content, safety and quality, and packaging. Most iLiNS supplements have a daily ration size of 20g and are intended for home fortification of local diets. For infants, this ration size is designed to avoid displacement of breast milk and to allow for dietary diversity including any locally available and accessible nutrient-dense foods. Selection of ingredients depends on acceptability of flavour, micronutrient, anti-nutrient and essential fatty acid contents. The nutrient content of LNS designed to prevent undernutrition reflects the likelihood that in many resource-poor settings, diets of the most nutritionally vulnerable individuals (infants, young children, and pregnant and lactating women) are likely to be deficient in multiple micronutrients and, possibly, in essential fatty acids. During ingredient procurement and LNS production, safety and quality control procedures are required to prevent contamination with toxins or pathogens and to ensure that the product remains stable and palatable over time. Packaging design decisions must include consideration of product protection, stability, convenience and portion control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Adu-Afarwuah S.,University of Ghana | Lartey A.,University of Ghana | Okronipa H.,University of Ghana | Ashorn P.,University of Tampere | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Background: The International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Project developed a small-quantity (20 g/d) lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for pregnant and lactating women. Objective: We evaluated the effects of prenatal LNS supplementation on fetal growth. Design: In a community-based, partially double-blind, individually randomized controlled trial, 1320 women ≤20 wk pregnant received 60 mg Fe/400 mg folic acid (IFA), or 1-2 Recommended Dietary Allowances of 18 micronutrients, including 20 mg Fe (MMN), or LNS with the same micronutrients as the MMN group, plus 4 minerals and macronutrients contributing 118 kcal (LNS) daily until delivery. Fetal growth was compared across groups by using intention- to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was birth length. Results: This analysis included 1057 women (IFA = 349, MMN = 354, LNS = 354). Groups did not differ significantly in mean birth length, length-for-age z score (LAZ), head circumference, or percentage low birth length but differed in mean birth weight (P = 0.044), weight-for-age z score (WAZ; P = 0.046), and BMI-forage z score (BMIZ; P = 0.040), with a trend toward differences in low birth weight (P = 0.069). In pairwise comparisons, the LNS group had greater mean birth weight (+85 g; P = 0.040), WAZ (+0.19; P = 0.045), and BMIZ (+0.21; P = 0.035) and a lower risk of low birth weight (RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.96; P = 0.032) than did the IFA group. The other group differences were not significant. The effect of intervention was modified by mother's parity, age, height, baseline hemoglobin, household food insecurity, and child sex, with parity being the most consistent modifier. Among primiparous women (IFA = 131; MMN = 110; LNS = 128), the LNS group had greater mean birth length (+0.91 cm; P = 0.001), LAZ (+0.47; P = 0.001), weight (+237 g; P < 0.001), WAZ (+0.56; P < 0.001), BMIZ (+0.52; P < 0.001), head circumference (0.50 cm; P = 0.017), and head circumference-for-age z score (+0.40; P = 0.022) than did the IFA group; similar differences were found when comparing the LNS and MMN groups among primiparous women, and no group differences were found among multiparous women. Conclusion: Prenatal LNS supplementation can improve fetal growth among vulnerable women in Ghana, particularly primiparous women. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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