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Wageningen, Netherlands

Meissner M.,University of Groningen | Herrema H.,University of Groningen | Herrema H.,Wageningen University | van Dijk T.H.,University of Groningen | And 8 more authors.

Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. Methods: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet) Colesevelam HCl (BAS) for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U- 13C]-glucose, [2- 13C]-glycerol, [1- 2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. Results: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001), a ~300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001) and a ~200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002). BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ~37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317) but not in liver (p = 0.189). Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030) and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002). Conclusions/Interpretation: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content. © 2011 Meissner et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Caesar R.,University of Oslo | Caesar R.,Gothenburg University | Manieri M.,Marche Polytechnic University | Kelder T.,Maastricht University | And 9 more authors.

Depot-dependent differences in adipose tissue physiology may reflect specialized functions and local interactions between adipocytes and surrounding tissues. We combined time-resolved microarray analyses of mesenteric- (MWAT), subcutaneous- (SWAT) and epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) during high-fat feeding of male transgenic ApoE3Leiden mice with histology, targeted lipidomics and biochemical analyses of metabolic pathways to identify differentially regulated processes and site-specific functions. EWAT was found to exhibit physiological zonation. De novo lipogenesis in fat proximal to epididymis was stably low, whereas de novo lipogenesis distal to epididymis and at other locations was down-regulated in response to high-fat diet. The contents of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in EWAT were increased compared to other depots. Expression of the androgen receptor (Ar) was higher in EWAT than in MWAT and SWAT. We suggest that Ar may mediate depot-dependent differences in de novo lipogenesis rate and propose that accumulation of linoleic acid and alinolenic acid in EWAT is favored by testosterone-mediated inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and may promote further elongation and desaturation of these polyunsaturated fatty acids during spermatogenesis. © 2010 Caesar et al. Source

Van Ommen B.,TNO | Bouwman J.,TNO | Dragsted L.O.,Copenhagen University | Drevon C.A.,University of Oslo | And 15 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition

The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in 'omics' technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the "Nutritional Phenotype database" (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different-omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed-omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and-omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is only sustainable if it is accepted and adopted by the wider nutrition and health research community as an open source, pre-competitive and publicly available resource where many partners both can contribute and profit from its developments. We introduce the Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO, http://www.nugo.org ) as a membership association responsible for establishing and curating the dbNP. Within NuGO, all efforts related to dbNP (i.e. usage, coordination, integration, facilitation and maintenance) will be directed towards a sustainable and federated infrastructure. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Lichtenstein L.,Nutrigenomics Consortium | Lichtenstein L.,Wageningen University | Mattijssen F.,Wageningen University | De Wit N.J.,Nutrigenomics Consortium | And 16 more authors.
Cell Metabolism

Dietary saturated fat is linked to numerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Here we study the role of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor Angptl4 in the response to dietary saturated fat. Strikingly, in mice lacking Angptl4, saturated fat induces a severe and lethal phenotype characterized by fibrinopurulent peritonitis, ascites, intestinal fibrosis, and cachexia. These abnormalities are preceded by a massive acute phase response induced by saturated but not unsaturated fat or medium-chain fat, originating in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). MLNs undergo dramatic expansion and contain numerous lipid-laden macrophages. In peritoneal macrophages incubated with chyle, Angptl4 dramatically reduced foam cell formation, inflammatory gene expression, and chyle-induced activation of ER stress. Induction of macrophage Angptl4 by fatty acids is part of a mechanism that serves to reduce postprandial lipid uptake from chyle into MLN-resident macrophages by inhibiting triglyceride hydrolysis, thereby preventing macrophage activation and foam cell formation and protecting against progressive, uncontrolled saturated fat-induced inflammation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lichtenstein L.,Nutrigenomics Consortium | Lichtenstein L.,Metabolism and Genomics Group | Kersten S.,Nutrigenomics Consortium | Kersten S.,Metabolism and Genomics Group
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids

There is evidence that elevated plasma triglycerides (TG) serve as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Plasma TG levels are determined by the balance between the rate of production of chylomicrons and VLDL in intestine and liver, respectively, and their rate of clearance in peripheral tissues. Lipolytic processing of TG-rich lipoproteins is mediated by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which is tethered to the capillary endothelium via heparin sulphate proteoglycans. In recent years the Angiopoietin-like proteins ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 have emerged as novel modulators of LPL activity. Studies in transgenic animals supported by in vitro experiments have demonstrated that ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 impair plasma TG clearance by inhibiting LPL activity. In humans, genetic variation within the ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 genes contributes to variation in plasma TG and HDL levels, thereby validating the importance of ANGPTLs in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism in humans. Combined with the discovery of GPIHBP1 as a likely LPL anchor, these findings have led to a readjustment of the mechanism of LPL function. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the role and regulation of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and GPIHBP1, and places the newly acquired knowledge in the context of the established function and mechanism of LPL-mediated lipolysis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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