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Van Straaten E.C.W.,VU University Amsterdam | Van Straaten E.C.W.,Nutricia Research | Scheltens P.,VU University Amsterdam | Gouw A.A.,VU University Amsterdam | Stam C.J.,VU University Amsterdam
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy | Year: 2014

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a longstanding technique to measure electrical brain activity and thereby an indirect measure of synaptic activity. Synaptic dysfunction accompanies Alzheimer's disease (AD) and EEG can be regarded as a potentially useful biomarker in this disease. Lately, emerging analysis techniques of time series have become available for EEG, such as functional connectivity and network analysis, which have increased the possibilities for use in AD clinical trials. In this review, we report the EEG changes in the course of AD, including slowing of the EEG oscillations, decreased functional connectivity in the higher-frequency bands, and decline in optimal functional network organization. We discuss the use of EEG in clinical trials and provide directions for future research. © 2014 van Straaten et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Hogenkamp A.,University Utrecht | Thijssen S.,University Utrecht | van Vlies N.,University Utrecht | van Vlies N.,University of Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Previously, maternal supplementation with short-chain galacto- and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS; ratio 9:1) was shown to affect maternal and fetal immune status in mice. Objective: This study was designed to test the long-term effects of supplementation of mice with scGOS/lcFOS before and during pregnancy on the immune response in the offspring, using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced model for experimental allergic asthma. Methods: Female Balb/c mice were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with 3% scGOS/lcFOS and mated to C57BL/6 males. All dams were fed the control diet after delivery. At 6 wk, male offspring received an intraperitoneal injection of aluminum hydroxide and OVA (control and scGOS/lcFOS group) or saline (sham group). The acute allergic skin response (ASR) after intradermal challenge with OVA or saline was measured at 8 wk. After 3 airway challenges with nebulized OVA or saline, lung function was measured. Results: The scGOS/lcFOS group had a significantly lower acute ASR (85 ± 9 μm) than the control group (124 ± 9 μm; P = 0.01). Lower lung resistance from a response to methacholine challenge was seen in the scGOS/lcFOS group. OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E concentrations in the control group [93 ± 45 arbitrary unit (AU)] and the scGOS/lcFOS group (67 ± 45 AU) were higher than in the sham group (11 ± 2 AU). OVA specific IgG2a concentrations in the scGOS/lcFOS (146 ± 24 AU) were higher than in the sham group (2 ± 0.3 AU) and control group (18 ± 3.5 AU; P < 0.05). Finally, the scGOS/lcFOS group had a higher percentage of regulatory T cells (1.11% ± 0.07%) than the sham group (0.14% ± 0.03%) and the control group (0.11% ± 0.02%; P < 0.05). Conclusion: Maternal supplementation of mice with scGOS/lcFOS during pregnancy leads to a significant decrease in allergic symptoms in the offspring. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Van Zanten A.R.H.,Gelderse Vallei Hospital | Sztark F.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center | Kaisers U.X.,University of Leipzig | Zielmann S.,Heinrich Braun Klinikum | And 11 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2014

IMPORTANCE: Enteral administration of immune-modulating nutrients (eg, glutamine, omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, and antioxidants) has been suggested to reduce infections and improve recovery from critical illness. However, controversy exists on the use of immune-modulating enteral nutrition, reflected by lack of consensus in guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether high-protein enteral nutrition enriched with immune-modulating nutrients (IMHP) reduces the incidence of infections compared with standard high-protein enteral nutrition (HP) in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The MetaPlus study, a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, was conducted from February 2010 through April 2012 including a 6-month follow-up period in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and Belgium. A total of 301 adult patients who were expected to be ventilated for more than 72 hours and to require enteral nutrition for more than 72 hours were randomized to the IMHP (n = 152) or HP (n = 149) group and included in an intention-to-treat analysis, performed for the total population as well as predefined medical, surgical, and trauma subpopulations. INTERVENTIONS: High-protein enteral nutrition enriched with immune-modulating nutrients vs standard high-protein enteral nutrition, initiated within 48 hours of ICU admission and continued during the ICU stay for a maximum of 28 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome measurewas incidence of new infections according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions. Secondary end points included mortality, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, mechanical ventilation duration, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and subtypes of infections according CDC definitions. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in incidence of new infections between the groups: 53% (95% CI, 44%-61%) in the IMHP group vs 52% (95% CI, 44%-61%) in the HP group (P = .96). No statistically significant differences were observed in other end points, except for a higher 6-month mortality rate in the medical subgroup: 54% (95% CI, 40%-67%) in the IMHP group vs 35% (95% CI, 22%-49%) in the HP group (P = .04), with a hazard ratio of 1.57 (95% CI, 1.03-2.39; P = .04) for 6-month mortality adjusted for age and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score comparing the groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among adult patients breathing with the aid of mechanical ventilation in the ICU, IMHP compared with HP did not improve infectious complications or other clinical end points and may be harmful as suggested by increased adjusted mortality at 6 months. These findings do not support the use of IMHP nutrients in these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR2181. Source


Bailey R.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Bailey R.L.,Purdue University | van Wijngaarden J.P.,Nutricia Research
Current Osteoporosis Reports | Year: 2015

The risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures increases with age. Several other factors are also related to bone disease including gender, race/ethnicity, physical activity, alcohol, smoking, estrogen, and calcium and vitamin D. B-vitamins (folate, B12, and B6) are also emerging dietary factors related to bone health, both individually and through their action on influencing total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy). The primary objective of this review is to summarize the available data on B-vitamins and bone health, highlighting clinical trials and observational data. In populations without folic acid fortification, the totality of evidence suggests that elevated tHcy has a small but significant association with bone fracture risk and bone quality but not on bone mineral density (BMD) or bone turnover biomarkers. Very little supportive evidence exists for a direct role of folate for either BMD or fracture risk; however, the data available are quite limited. Meta-analyses and some cross-sectional and cohort studies suggest a small but significant role of vitamin B12 status on risk of fracture but not on BMD. The mechanism by which tHcy and B12 may influence bone health is not well characterized but may be through modulation of collagen cross-linking or through altering osteoclasts or osteoblasts. Much more data are needed—particularly the role that each vitamin directly has on bone, or whether the vitamins only exert their effect though tHcy concentrations. Nevertheless, consistent findings across different populations with different study designs suggest a role for tHcy and B12 in reducing fracture risk. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA). Source


Scholtens P.A.,Nutricia Research | Goossens D.A.M.,Nutricia Research | Staiano A.,University of Naples
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Human milk is considered to be the optimal source of infant nutrition. Some of the benefits of breastfeeding have been ascribed to human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). For instance, HMO can affect faecal characteristics such as stool consistency and stool frequency. Such effects on stool characteristics can be beneficial for young infants as hard stools and even constipation is common in that age group. Prebiotics in infant milk formulas have been introduced to exert similar functionalities. A specific mixture of prebiotics consists of a combination of short chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) in a ratio of 9:1. This specific mixture has been developed to closely resemble the molecular size composition of HMO. Many studies have been done with scGOS/lcFOS, and indicators for digestive comfort have often been included as secondary outcomes. This review summarizes the effects of scGOS/lcFOS (9:1) on stool consistency, stool frequency and transit time in healthy term and preterm infants. In several of the studies with scGOS/lcFOS in a ratio of 9:1 in infant milk formulas, positive effects of this mixture on stool characteristics such as stool consistency and stool frequency were observed. As stool consistency was shown to be correlated to whole gut transit time, scGOS/lcFOS can be hypothesised to have a role in reducing the risk of constipation. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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