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Seongnam, South Korea

Park H.-R.,Yonsei University | Ghafoor K.,King Saud University | Lee D.,Yonsei University | Kim S.,Nutrex Technology Co. | And 2 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology

Major ginsenosides in ginseng (Panax ginseng) and its products are highly glycosylated, hence poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. β-Glycosidase-assisted deglycosylation of pure ginsenosides was peformed to study bioconversion mechanisms. Ginsenoside standard compounds, crude saponin, and red ginseng extracts were incubated with β-glycosidase (0.05% w/v, 55°C). β-Glycosidase has a broad specificity for β-glycosidic bonds, hydrolyzing the β-(1→6), α-(1→6), and α-(1→2) glycosidic linkages. The final metabolite of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides was Rg3 while the metabolite of protopanaxatriol ginsenosides was Rh1. β-Glycosidase treatment of red ginseng extracts resulted in a decrease in the amounts of Rb1, Rc, Re, and Rg2 after 24 h, whereas levels of the less glycosylated Rd, Rb1, Rg, Rg3, Rg1, and Rh1 forms increased. When crude saponin was incubated with β-glycosidase for 24 h, levels of Rb1, Rc, Re, and Rg1 decreased while levels of Rd, Rg3, and Rh1 increased as deglycosylated ginsenosides. © 2013 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Bang S.,Yonsei University | Lee D.,Yonsei University | Lee D.,Nutrex Technology Co. | Kim H.,Yonsei University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

BACKGROUND: Gromwell is known to have diverse pharmacological, cosmetic and nutritional benefits for humans. Nevertheless, the biological influence of gromwell extract (GE) on the general physiology of eukaryotic cells remains unknown. In this study a global transcriptome analysis was performed to identify genes affected by the addition of GE with Cryptococcus neoformans as the model system. RESULTS: In response to GE treatment, genes involved in signal transduction were immediately regulated, and the evolutionarily conserved sets of genes involved in the core cellular functions, including DNA replication, RNA transcription/processing and protein translation/processing, were generally up-regulated. In contrast, a number of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and transport, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, post-translational modification/protein turnover/chaperone functions and signal transduction were down-regulated. Among the GE-responsive genes that are also evolutionarily conserved in the human genome, the expression patterns of YSA1, TPO2, CFO1 and PZF1 were confirmed by northern blot analysis. Based on the functional characterization of some GE-responsive genes, it was found that GE treatment may promote cellular tolerance against a variety of environmental stresses in eukaryotes. CONCLUSIONS: GE treatment affects the expression levels of a significant portion of the Cryptococcus genome, implying that GE significantly affects the general physiology of eukaryotic cells. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Park D.-H.,Dongshin University | Jung D.H.,BIO FD and C Co. | Kim S.J.,BIO FD and C Co. | Kim S.H.,Nutrex Technology Co. | Park K.M.,Dongshin University
BMC Biochemistry

Background: The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results: We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions: Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. © 2014 Park et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Lee K.-T.,Yonsei University | Lee J.-W.,Yonsei University | Lee D.,Nutrex Technology Co. | Jung W.-H.,Chung - Ang University | Bahn Y.-S.,Yonsei University

The iron uptake and utilization pathways play a critical role in allowing human pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans, the causative agent of fatal meningoencephalitis, to survive within the mammalian body by competing with the host for iron. Here we show that the iron regulon is also required for diverse environmental stress responses and that in C. neoformans, it is regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway. Between CFO1 and CFO2, two ferroxidase genes in the iron regulon, CFO1 but not CFO2 was induced during oxidative and osmotic stress. Interestingly, we found that the HOG pathway repressed basal expression of both CFO1 and CFO2. Furthermore, when the HOG pathway was blocked, CFO2 also responded to oxidative and osmotic stress and the response of CFO1 was increased. We also established that CFO1 plays a major role in responding and adapting to diverse environmental stresses, including oxidative and genotoxic damage, osmotic fluctuations, heavy metal stress, and stress induced by cell membrane destabilizers. Therefore, our findings indicate that in C. neoformans, the iron uptake and utilization pathways are not only required for iron acquisition and survival, but also play a significant role in the environmental stress response through crosstalk with the HOG pathway. © The Korean Society of Mycology. Source

Provided herein are uses of genes for HOG, Ras and cAMP signal transduction pathways to treat fungal infection. To regulate the HOG pathway of

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