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Boxmeer, Netherlands

Morrison S.J.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Wicks H.C.F.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Carson A.F.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Fallon R.J.,Teagasc | And 3 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2012

Sixty-five Holstein-Friesian calves were randomly allocated to one of eight nutritional treatments at 4 days of age. In this factorial design study, the treatments comprised of four levels of milk replacer (MR) mixed in 6 l of water (500, 750, 1000 and 1250 g/day) X - two crude protein (CP) concentrations (230 and 270 g CP/kg dry matter (DM)). MR was fed via automatic teat feeders and concentrates were offered via automated dispensers during the pre-wean period. MR and calf starter concentrate intake were recorded until weaning with live weight and body measurements recorded throughout the rearing period until heifers entered the dairy herd at a targeted 24 months of age. There was no effect of MR protein concentration on concentrate or MR intake, and no effect on body size or live weight at any stage of development. During the pre-weaning period, for every 100 g increase in MR allowance, concentrate consumption was reduced by 39 g/day. While, for every 100 g increase in the amount of MR offered, live weight at days 28 and 270 increased by 0.76 and 2.61 kg, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing MR feed levels increased (P < 0.05) heart girth and body condition score at recordings during the first year of life, but these effects disappeared thereafter. Increasing MR feeding level tended to reduce both age at first observed oestrus and age at first service but no significant effect on age at first calving was observed. Neither MR feeding level nor MR CP content affected post-calving live weight or subsequent milk production. Balance measurements conducted using 44 male calves during the pre-weaning period showed that increasing milk allowance increased energy and nitrogen (N) intake, diet DM digestibility, true N digestibility and the biological value of the dietary protein. Increasing the MR protein content had no significant effect on the apparent digestibility of N or DM. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.

Martin-Tereso J.,Nutreco Ruminant Research Center | Martens H.,Free University of Berlin
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice | Year: 2014

Dairy cows may suffer events of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, commonly known as milk fever and tetany. Milk fever is characterized by hypocalcemia at parturition as a consequence of a sudden increase in Ca demand and an unavoidable delay in Ca metabolism adaptation. Tetany is due to impaired Mg absorption from the rumen that cannot be compensated by absorptive or excretory adaptation, resulting in a net nutritional shortage of Mg and culminating in hypomagnesemia. Prevention strategies require triggering the activation of Ca gastrointestinal absorption and avoiding factors limiting ruminal Mg absorption. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Bertipaglia L.M.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Fondevila M.,University of Zaragoza | van Laar H.,Nutreco Ruminant Research Center | Castrillo C.,University of Zaragoza
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Two in vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of concentrate pelleting for intensively reared cattle on rumen microbial fermentation. In Experiment 1, a concentrate was incubated as meal (M) or pelleted to 3.5 (P3.5) and 10 (P10) mm diameter, either in their original form or re-ground to 1. mm particle size (MG, P3.5G and P10G) and their gas production pattern was studied. When the concentrate was incubated in its original form, gas produced with M was higher than with P10 at 1. h and from 3 to 6. h of incubation (P<0.05), showing that pelleting to 10. mm diameter delayed microbial fermentation of the concentrate at the initial stages of incubation. When the concentrate was incubated ground, MG produced the lowest gas volume up to 8. h (P<0.05), but there were no differences with P10G afterwards. This indicates that, once avoided the limitation of microbial accessibility by pellet and particle size, fermentation increased because starch gelatinisation was promoted by processing. However, the magnitude of this effect was not different between the two pellet sizes. In Experiment 2, the original forms of concentrate (M, P3.5 and P10) were incubated for 24. h in a semicontinuous incubation system at pH 6.5 and 5.8, and concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA) was monitored at 4 and 10. h. The pH reduction decreased gas production throughout the experimental period (P<0.001). Gas production from M was higher than P10 up to 4. h (P<0.05), at 6. h and from 20 to 24. h (P<0.10). Total VFA concentration at 4. h was lowest with P10 (P<0.01), but no differences were recorded at 10. h. Results from Experiment 2 support those from Experiment 1, even at pH 5.8 and at a liquid outflow rate of 0.10/h, that could be expected in intensively reared beef cattle. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Castrillo C.,University of Zaragoza | Mota M.,University of Zaragoza | Van Laar H.,Nutreco Ruminant Research Center | Martin-Tereso J.,Nutreco Ruminant Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The effect of feeding a compound feed as meal (M) or pelleted at 3.5 (P3.5) or 10 (P10) mm i.d. on feed intake pattern and rumen fermentation in growing calves was investigated. Compound feeds were fed ad libitum with barley straw to six 3-mo-old rumen cannulated calves in a double 3×3 Latin square arrangement. In a first 9-wk phase (I) free access to concentrate was allowed, whereas in a second 6-wk phase (II) access was restricted to 09:00h to 11:30h and 17:00h to 19:30h. Rumen samples were collected on two non-consecutive days at 08:30h, 13:00h and 17:00h. Pelleting increased the degree of starch gelatinization from 0.113 in M to 0.205 and 0.154, in P3.5 and P10. In both phases, P10 slowed consumption of concentrate during morning feeding (P<0.01), although treatments did not affect total daily concentrate intake (97gDM/kgLW0.75 and 82gDM/kgLW0.75) in phases I and II. In phase I, pH before morning distribution was lower than in phase II (6.5 versus 7.2). Four hours after feeding, there was a pH drop (P<0.001), which was higher in phase II (1.5 units) than in phase I (0.7 units), in line with a higher concentrate intake (4.10kg versus 1.89kg). Calves fed P3.5 tended (P=0.052) to a lower pH than those on M in phase I, and those fed P10 had the least decrease in pH after feeding. No pH differences occurred between treatments in phase II, although pH recovery from 4 to 8h after feeding tended to be more (P=0.073) for P10. Rumen lactic acid concentration increased after feeding (P<0.05 and P<0.001) in phases I and II, reaching 45.7mg/l and 39.6mg/l, respectively. In phase II, P3.5 animals reached a higher (P<0.01) concentration than M and P10 animals. Rumen ammonia concentration decreased (P<0.001) after feeding, reaching the lowest values 4h later (23.3mg/l and 13.6mg/l in phases I and II). P3.5 showed lower ammonia concentration than M in phase I (P<0.05). Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration increased (P<0.001) after feeding in both phases, decreasing the acetic to propionic ratio (P<0.001). In phase I, calves fed M tended (P=0.074) to have lower total VFA rumen concentration and higher acetic to propionic ratio (P<0.01) than those fed pellets. Results suggest that with pelleting at 3.5mm, increased ruminal fermentation rate dominates regulation of substrate delivery and results in lower pH values that could eventually translate into higher risk of acidosis compared with unprocessed meal. Increasing the pellet diameter to 10mm may decrease the rate of fermentation through a homogeneous daily intake pattern, without affecting total intake, even under conditions of restricted feeding. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Martin-Tereso J.,Nutreco Ruminant Research Center | Derks M.,Wageningen University | Van Laar H.,Nutreco Ruminant Research Center | Mulder K.,Nutreco Ruminant Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2010

At calving, many older cows fail to compensate the sudden demand of calcium by an adequate activation of intestinal absorption. This results in a variable degree of hypocalcaemia. Reducing intestinal availability of calcium during the close-up period can prevent milk fever. Fat-coated rice bran (FCRB) was investigated for its potential to reduce Ca availability in pre-calving cows. Fat-coated rice bran was incubated in situ to estimate ruminal degradation of dry matter and phytic acid. Also, seven dry multiparous dairy cows were used for a feeding trial in three periods of approximately 1 week each: P1: adaptation; P2: feeding of 2 kg of FCRB and P3: withdrawal of FCRB. Feed intake was recorded and daily urine samples were analysed for pH, Ca and creatinine. The bypass fraction of phytic acid (passage rate: 5%/h) was 30%. Fat-coated rice bran depressed dry matter intake in P2, resulting in a lower Ca intake. In P2 urine pH and calcium excretion were lower. Daily calcium excretion decreased after introduction of FCRB, peaked after withdrawal and dropped 2 days later. Changes in urinary Ca excretion by feeding FCRB indicate that FCRB affected Ca homeostasis in dry multiparous dairy cows. © 2009 NUTRECO. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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