Boxmeer, Netherlands
Boxmeer, Netherlands

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Loisel F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Loisel F.,Agrocampus Ouest | Farmer C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | van Hees H.,Nutreco Research and Development | And 2 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2015

In swine, colostrum production is induced by the drop of progesterone (P4) concentrations which leads to the prepartum peak of prolactin (PRL). PRL regulates mammary cell turnover and stimulates lacteal nutrient synthesis. P4 inhibits PRL secretion and downregulates the PRL receptor in the mammary gland. The aim of the present study was to determine if the relative prepartum concentrations of P4 and PRL (PRL/P4 ratio) influence sow colostrum production. The performance of 29 Landrace × Large White primiparous sows was analyzed. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24h starting at the onset of parturition (T0) using litter weight gains. Colostrum was collected at T0 and 24h later (T24). Repeated jugular blood samples were collected during the peripartum period, that is, from -72 to +24h related to farrowing and were assayed for P4 and PRL. Sows were retrospectively categorized in 2 groups according to their PRL/P4 ratio 24h before farrowing being either <2 (low PRL/P4, n = 16) or >3 (high PRL/P4, n = 13). During the peripartum period, the circulating concentrations of P4 were lower (P < 0.05) and those of PRL tended to be greater (P < 0.10) in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows. Colostrum yield was greater in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (4.11 vs 3.48kg [root mean square error = 0.69], P < 0.05). Colostrum composition (dry matter, energy, protein, lipid, and lactose contents) and IgG and IgA concentrations did not differ between the 2 groups of sows (P > 0.10). The Na/K ratio in colostrum 24h after the onset of farrowing was lower in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (P < 0.05). Piglet mortality between birth and T24 averaged 10.0% in low PRL/P4 litters and 7.0% in high PRL/P4 litters (P = 0.29). In conclusion, a greater PRL/P4 ratio 24h prepartum, characterized by lower P4 concentrations and a trend for greater PRL concentrations peripartum, led to increased colostrum yield in primiparous sows. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Vallverdu-Queralt A.,University of Barcelona | Vallverdu-Queralt A.,CIBER ISCIII | Regueiro J.,University of Vigo | Martinez-Huelamo M.,University of Barcelona | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Martin-Tereso J.,Nutreco Research and Development | Martin-Tereso J.,Wageningen University | van Puijenbroek R.,Wageningen University | van Vuuren A.M.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2011

Milk fever in dairy cows can be prevented by activating Ca homeostasis before calving. Homeostatic adaptation can be achieved by reducing dietary Ca availability. Formaldehyde-treated rice bran was studied to supply rumen protected phytic acid to reduce Ca availability. Twelve multiparous dry cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square change-over design with 5-day periods to test three dietary treatments. Diets consisted of a forage mix (maize silage, grass silage and hay), being 77% of ration dry matter, supplemented with three concentrates: Control (no formaldehyde-treated rice bran), T1 (100% formaldehyde-treated rice bran) and T2 (99.5% formaldehyde-treated rice bran with 0.6% Ca carbonate, to equal Ca content of Control). Dietary treatments did not affect urine pH (8.14, 8.13 and 8.11 for Control, T1 and T2 respectively) or dry matter intake (13.9, 13.7 and 13.8kg for Control, T1 and T2 respectively). Including formaldehyde-treated rice bran in the diet resulted in lower urinary Ca/creatinine ratio (0.970, 0.457 and 0.618 for Control, T1 and T2 respectively). A sudden increase of urinary Ca excretion took place after withdrawal of T1 and T2 at introduction of Control, peaking on the first day and coming back down progressively in the second and third days. Peak was greatest after T1 and was not observed in transitions between rice bran treatments. This is understood as indirect evidence of activation of intestinal Ca absorption during formaldehyde-treated rice bran feeding, because renal adaptations to changes in blood Ca clearance are immediate and intestinal adaptations delay 2days. It was concluded that including formaldehyde-treated rice bran in rations before calving may represent a dietary strategy to prevent milk fever without reducing dry matter intake. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Martin-Tereso J.,Nutreco Research and Development | Verstegen M.W.A.,Wageningen University
Nutrition Research Reviews | Year: 2011

Most dairy cows exhibit different degrees of hypocalcaemia around calving because the gestational Ca requirements shift to the disproportionately high Ca requirements of lactation. Ca homeostasis is a robust system that effectively adapts to changes in Ca demand or supply. However, these adaptations often are not rapid enough to avoid hypocalcaemia. A delay in the reconfiguration of intestinal Ca absorption and bone resorption is probably the underlying cause of this transient hypocalcaemia. Several dietary factors that affect different aspects of Ca metabolism are known to reduce the incidence of milk fever. The present review describes the interactions between nutrition and Ca homeostasis using observations from cattle and extrapolations from other species and aims to quantitatively model the effects of the nutritional approaches that are used to induce dry cows into an early adaptation of Ca metabolism. The present model suggests that reducing dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) increases Ca clearance from the blood by dietary induction of systemic acidosis, which results in hypercalciuria due to the loss of function of the renal Ca transient receptor potential vanilloid channel TRPV5. Alternatively, reducing the gastrointestinal availability of Ca by reducing dietary Ca or its nutritional availability will also induce the activation of Ca metabolism to compensate for basal blood Ca clearance. Our model of gastrointestinal Ca availability as well as blood Ca clearance in the transition dairy cow allowed us to conclude that the most common dietary strategies for milk fever prevention may have analogous modes of action that are based on the principle of metabolic adaptation before calving. © 2011 The Authors.


Martin-Tereso J.,Nutreco Research and Development | ter Wijlen H.,Nutreco Research and Development | van Laar H.,Nutreco Research and Development | van Laar H.,Wageningen University | Verstegen M.W.A.,Wageningen University
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2014

Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Souza da Silva C.,Wageningen University | Bosch G.,Wageningen University | Bolhuis J.E.,Wageningen University | Stappers L.J.N.,Wageningen University | And 3 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2014

This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency were reduced in pigs fed ALG, which also showed increased physical activity. Pigs fed RS changed feeding patterns, but did not increase their feed intake. Despite a lower DE intake, pigs fed RS achieved similar ADG as control pigs by increasing efficiency in DE use. This indicates that the energy utilization of RS in pigs with ad libitum access to feed is close to that of enzymatically digestible starch. © The Animal Consortium 2014.


PubMed | Nutreco Research and Development
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition research reviews | Year: 2012

Most dairy cows exhibit different degrees of hypocalcaemia around calving because the gestational Ca requirements shift to the disproportionately high Ca requirements of lactation. Ca homeostasis is a robust system that effectively adapts to changes in Ca demand or supply. However, these adaptations often are not rapid enough to avoid hypocalcaemia. A delay in the reconfiguration of intestinal Ca absorption and bone resorption is probably the underlying cause of this transient hypocalcaemia. Several dietary factors that affect different aspects of Ca metabolism are known to reduce the incidence of milk fever. The present review describes the interactions between nutrition and Ca homeostasis using observations from cattle and extrapolations from other species and aims to quantitatively model the effects of the nutritional approaches that are used to induce dry cows into an early adaptation of Ca metabolism. The present model suggests that reducing dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) increases Ca clearance from the blood by dietary induction of systemic acidosis, which results in hypercalciuria due to the loss of function of the renal Ca transient receptor potential vanilloid channel TRPV5. Alternatively, reducing the gastrointestinal availability of Ca by reducing dietary Ca or its nutritional availability will also induce the activation of Ca metabolism to compensate for basal blood Ca clearance. Our model of gastrointestinal Ca availability as well as blood Ca clearance in the transition dairy cow allowed us to conclude that the most common dietary strategies for milk fever prevention may have analogous modes of action that are based on the principle of metabolic adaptation before calving.


PubMed | University of Vigo, University of Barcelona, São Paulo State University and Nutreco Research and Development
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2014

Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices.


PubMed | Nutreco Research and Development
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal science | Year: 2013

Postnatal (muscle) growth potential in pigs depends on the total number and hypertrophy of myofibers in skeletal muscle tissue. In a previous study an algorithm was developed to predict piglet BW at the end of the nursery period (10 wk of age) on the basis of BW at birth, at weaning, and at 6 wk of age. The objective of this study was to determine whether the differences in growth performance between poor (PP) and high (HP) performing piglets could be the result of different skeletal muscle properties. Therefore, from a total of 368 piglets (offspring from Hypor sows bred to TOPIGS sires) 2 groups with a divergent growth performance were selected at 6 wk of age: HP (n = 20, predicted BW at 10 wk of age 26.8-30.9 kg) and PP (n = 20, predicted BW at 10 wk of age 16.0-22.9 kg). Piglets were euthanized at 10 wk of age, and samples of the semitendinosus muscle (STN) were collected for histochemistry and gene expression analysis using quantitative PCR (qPCR). At 10 wk of age, realized BW did not differ from predicted BW in either group (P > 0.880). The HP piglets exhibited greater ADG and ADFI from 6 to 10 wk and greater BW at birth and 6 and 10 wk of age (P 0.002) compared with the PP piglets, whereas G:F ratio was similar (P = 0.417). Superior growth performance of HP piglets was associated with a 1.27-fold higher IGF1 plasma concentration at 10 wk compared with the PP piglets (P = 0.044). The greater weight and muscle cross-sectional area of STN in HP piglets was due to a 1.20-fold increase in total muscle fiber number (TFN; P = 0.009) and 1.34-fold increase in fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA; P = 0.004) compared with the PP piglets. The number of myonuclei per red and intermediate fiber was greater in HP piglets (P 0.097), but the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio was unaffected by the performance group (P = 0.861). The mRNA expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), paired box 7 (PAX7), myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), and myogenic differentiation factor (MYOD) did not differ between groups (P 0.327). However, IGF2-specific mRNA expression was numerically higher in the HP piglets (P = 0.101). The greater myofiber number, the higher degree of myofiber hypertrophy, and the increased muscular mRNA expression of IGF2 indicate that HP piglets exhibit a greater capacity for lean accretion and may grow faster until market weight. In summary, pigs that were selected for predicted high BW at 10 wk of age using a complex selection model had a superior muscularity in terms of greater TFN and FCSA, which may be of advantage for lean mass accretion in later life and for meat quality.


PubMed | Nutreco Research and Development
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal science | Year: 2012

In pig (Sus Scrofa) production, within-batch variation in bw gain of piglets during the nursery period (up to 10 wk of age) can be high and is of high economic importance. Homogeneity of BW within batches of animals is important as it influences the efficiency of use of the grower and finisher facilities, and provides an extra value for the fattening farms. In the current study, factors for a light BW at the end of the nursery period of pigs were determined by analyzing datasets from 3 different swine research centers in the Netherlands and France. The entire dataset contained information on 77,868 individual piglets born between 2005 and 2010. Body weight was determined at different time points over the pre- and post-weaning phase, and sex, season of birth, litter information (litter size at day of birth and after cross-fostering, number of piglets born alive per litter, number of total born littermates, sow parity number), cross-fostered animals (yes or no), and pen group size over the post-weaning period were recorded. A risk factor analysis approach was used to analyze the datasets to determine factors that predict piglet bw at the end of the nursery period. Body weight at the end of the nursery period corrected for age was mainly determined by season (P < 0.001), birth weight (BiW, P < 0.001), weaning weight (WW, P < 0.001), and BW at 6 wk of age (P < 0.001). These variables were consistent among datasets and explained approximately 70% of the overall variation in BW at the end of the nursery period. Litter information did not significantly (P > 0.05) contribute to explaining the BW at the end of the nursery period. To discard the possibility of intrauterine growth retarded piglets (IUGR) being the reason for the influence of BiW as an explanatory factor in the regression model, a further analysis was performed on the effect of this category of piglets on the results of the regression analysis. Overall, it was concluded that the bw of piglets at the end of the nursery phase is mainly determined by season, sex, birth, WW, and BW at 6 wk of age. Piglets with a BiW greater than the mean biw minus 2.5 times the sd have the potential to compensate during the subsequent phases of growth.

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