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Apschner A.,Hubrecht Institute KNAW and UMC Utrecht | Schulte-Merker S.,Hubrecht Institute KNAW and UMC Utrecht | Witten P.E.,Nutreco Aquaculture Research Center | Witten P.E.,Ghent University
Methods in Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Developmental osteogenesis and pathologies of mineralized tissues are areas of intense investigations in the mammalian field, but different from other areas of organ formation and developmental biology, zebrafish have been somewhat slow in joining the area of bone research. In recent years, however, genetic screens have provided a number of exciting mutants, and transgenic lines have been developed that permit visualization of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vivo. We here review some of the recent literature and provide examples where insights from studies in zebrafish have complemented the information available from mammalian models or clinical studies. Furthermore, we provide a comparative overview about different forms of bone within the teleost lineage, and between teleosts and mammals. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Olsvik P.A.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Vikesa V.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Vikesa V.,Nutreco Aquaculture Research Center | Lie K.K.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Hevroy E.M.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Warmer seawater as a result of climate change may impose environmental challenges for Atlantic salmon aquaculture in its southernmost geographic range. Seawater temperatures above optimal level for growth may be reached in the warmest summer weeks. Caged fish can experience temperature and low oxygen saturation stress during such episodes, raising fish welfare and productivity concerns. In this work we compare the transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon exposed to chronic high temperature (19°C) and low oxygen saturation (4-5 mg/L) stress.Results: We used next-generation sequencing and RT-qPCR to screen for effects, and focused on growth regulation and oxidative stress in fish exposed to sub-optimal conditions. Both prolonged temperature (45 days) and low oxygen (120 days) stress had a significant negative effect on growth. The main effect of heat stress appears to be a general reduced transcriptional rate in salmon liver, while mechanisms typically associated with responses induced by chemical drugs were stimulated. Heat stress significantly down-regulated several transcripts encoding proteins involved in the protection against oxidative stress, including CuZn SOD, Mn SOD, GPx1 and GR, as well as additional stress markers HIF1A, CYP1A, MTOR and PSMC2 (RT-qPCR data). In salmon held at low oxygen concentration for four months protein ubiquitination (protein catabolism) was the most strongly affected pathway. According to the RT-qPCR data, low oxygen stress significantly up-regulated the transcriptional levels of IGFBP1B and down-regulated the levels of GR. Pathway analysis suggests that high temperature and low oxygen saturation stress affects many similar mechanisms in Atlantic salmon. Based on the gene lists, six out of the top ten predicted upstream transcriptional regulators, 1,2-dithiol-3-thione sirolimus, CD437, 5-fluorouracil, HNF4A and NFE2L2, were similar between the two treatments.Conclusions: In conclusion, temperature and low oxygen saturation stress affect many identical mechanisms in liver cells resulting in a metabolic depression, but these effects are not necessarily mediated through altered transcription of the same genes. © 2013 Olsvik et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Probyn T.A.,Nutreco Aquaculture Research Center | Atkins J.F.,University of Cape Town | Pitcher G.C.,Nutreco Aquaculture Research Center
African Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2015

Measurements of NH4, NO3, urea and HCO3 uptake using 15N and 13C stable isotope tracers were undertaken in Saldanha Bay, South Africa, between January 2012 and January 2013. These studies provide the first direct measurements of N utilisation by the plankton in the bay. Primary production in the bay is driven predominantly by the advection of nutrients from the neighbouring shelf environment during upwelling events, with terrestrial and other sources providing minor inputs. New production (NO3-based) was calculated from the f-ratio and total primary production and was used to provide estimates of potential carrying capacity for bivalve culture. Despite the apparent light limitation of NO3 uptake in the winter, the availability of NO3 appeared to exert the major influence on new production throughout the year. In addition, new production was modulated by NH4 availability as shown by the suppression of NO3 uptake by concentrations higher than 1−1.5 mmol m−3. The estimated areal new production of 0.60 g C m−2 d−1 yielded a bay-wide annual estimate of 9 811 t C ha−1 y−1, slightly higher than previous calculations based on physical models. It is estimated that the total annual production of mussels and oysters, respectively, for a 1 000-ha cultivation area is approximately 40 000–53 000 t y−1 (mainly Mytilus galloprovincialis) and 4 600–6 000 t y−1 (Crassotrea gigas). The combined total production figures constitute only 24–31% of the surplus new production. A combined harvestable carrying capacity of 74 000–82 000 t y−1 can be calculated from this surplus. However, from a management and ecological perspective, bivalve culture should be limited to well below this theoretical maximum. Even with this constraint, there appears to be considerable scope for expansion of bivalve farming over the modest, present levels with little jeopardy to ecological integrity. © 2015 NISC (Pty) Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.4-02 | Award Amount: 1.18M | Year: 2012

Due to declining stocks and increased fishing pressure there are serious concerns that the present fisheries and fattening industry for Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is not sustainable and that every effort should be made to develop BFT aquaculture. TRANSDOTT represents a top-down approach from one Enterprise, four SMEs and three non SMEs to build on the scientific results obtained from two previous projects REPRODOTT in (FP5) and SELFDOTT (FP7) and to translate them into a commercially viable innovative marketable application for tuna aquaculture. Starting in April 2012, based on an already established broodstock in a central Mediterranean major SME in Malta, fertilized tuna eggs will be provided in June 2012 and 2013 for larval rearing in three industrial scale hatchery SMEs for rearing scenarios in Spain, Israel and Italy together with two experimental hatcheries in Malta and Israel. RTD will involve the validation of existing protocols with the generation of fingerlings in late summer to be transferred from the industrial hatcheries to grow- out sea cages. Previously tried and tested, successful weaning and grow-out diets from SELFDOTT will be supplied by the Enterprise partner. The economic viability of these methodologies will be studied and used for the development of commercialization and capitalization of this process to provide sustainable Tuna Aquaculture.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IAPP | Award Amount: 611.95K | Year: 2012

Reduce the fish oil inclusion level in aquaculture feeds while maintaining high levels of marine omega 3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) in fish products to meet consumer expectations is a major problem of modern aquaculture. Both of these conditions reflect the necessity to examine in depth nutritional strategies aimed to maximise EPA and DHA retention on fish tissues. Omega3max aims to optimise dietary fatty acid composition and antioxidant sources and concentration to limit in vivo oxidative stress in fish tissues helping to preserve EPA and DHA. In addition not only the quantity of EPA\DHA, but also the position of both fatty acids to conform triacyglycerols and phospholipids, is becoming an important aspect in terms of function and bioavailability for human consumers. Therefore, the present project also aims to study the regiospecificity of fatty acids which is a novel issue for fish nutritionist with important implications on the nutritive quality of the fish flesh. This programme aims to increase the EU aquaculture industry competitiveness being more cost-effective and improving the nutritional value and quality of aquaculture products but also to strengthen the research and educational potential on aquaculture of both sectors industry and academia. The proposed research group in this Consortium comprises four partners, including two national non-commercial organisations namely the Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (UPM-Spain) and the Christian-Albrechts University Kiel (CAU-Germany) as well as two commercial enterprises namely Skretting Aquaculture Research Center (Skretting ARC-Norway) and Lucta (Spain). Both the academic and industrial partners have a strong track record on research activities and already established successful research collaborations in the recent past. We propose to create a long-lasting consortium of leading researchers with complementary expertise that can synergize innovative research in the fields of fish nutrition and health.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.2-09 | Award Amount: 11.84M | Year: 2013

The European aquaculture is a modern industry employing 190,000 people, with a 7 billion ex-farm value. This sector is well situated to be among world leaders in the efficient and sustainable production of safe seafood of the highest quality and nutritional value, taking into account consumer preferences and the large diversity of aquatic products from the wild. DIVERSIFY identified a number of new/emerging finfish species, with a great potential for the expansion of the EU aquaculture industry. The emphasis is on Mediterranean or warm-water cage culture, but also addressed are cold-water, pond/extensive and fresh water aquaculture. These new/emerging species are fast growing and/or large finfishes, marketed at a large size and can be processed into a range of products to provide the consumer with both a greater diversity of fish species and new value-added products. DIVERSIFY focuses on meagre (Argyrosomus regius) and greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) for warm-water marine cage culture, wreckfish (Polyprion americanus) for warm- and cool-water marine cage culture, Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) for marine cold-water culture, grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) a euryhaline herbivore for pond/extensive culture, and pikeperch (Sanders lucioperca) for freshwater intensive culture using RAS. These species were selected based both on their biological and economical potential, and to cover the entire European geographic area and stimulate different aquaculture types. In collaboration with a number of SMEs, DIVERSIFY will build on recent/current national initiatives for species diversification in aquaculture, in order to overcome the documented bottlenecks in the production of these species. The combination of biological, technological and socioeconomic research planned in DIVERSIFY are expected to support the diversification of the aquaculture industry and help in expanding production, increasing aquaculture products and development of new markets.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-2-09 | Award Amount: 4.41M | Year: 2008

SELFDOTT proposes to implement knowledge already obtained on the artificial control of reproduction of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT), Thunnus thynnus, to obtain viable eggs, and study embryonic and larval development for the production of fry (juveniles). At the same time, suitable and environmentally performing feeds for the growout of BFT will be developed, thus reducing or eliminating the practice of raw fish importation and feeding by the fattening industry. Wild juvenile and mature BFT will be reared in captivity at two sites in the Mediterranean, and will be used to study puberty, gametogenesis, and the influence of diet on reproductive maturation and gamete quality. Mature fish will be induced to spawn using hormone implants and the eggs will be collected using devices designed specifically for cages. To establish the knowledge-base for controlled development of BFT larvae, the mesocosm and artificial larval rearing methods will be employed. The ontogenesis of essential biological functions will be studied, including environmental perception, digestion, immunity and behaviour. A protocol for the commercial-scale larval rearing of BFT will be recommended at the end of the project. Whole body and stomach composition of wild fish will be analyzed and serve as a guide to formulate nutritionally complete artificial feeds for BFT. Juveniles will be captured from the wild, adapted to captive conditions and used to carry out weaning and feeding experiments, using moist and dry pelleted diets. The environmental impact of the formulated feeds will be examined and compared to existing raw-fish practises. SELFDOTT will produce the basic knowledge necessary for the development of a self-sustained aquaculture industry for the BFT in the Mediterranean, thus enhancing the competitiveness of the EU aquaculture industry, while at the same time reducing the pressure on the wild BFT stocks and ensuring the conservation and recovery of this magnificent fish.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-10a-2014 | Award Amount: 8.10M | Year: 2015

European aquaculture production provides direct employment to 80,000 people and a 3-billion annual turnover. Parasites cause severe disease outbreaks and high economic losses in finfish aquaculture. The overarching goal of ParaFishControl is to increase the sustainability and competitiveness of European Aquaculture by improving understanding of fish-parasite interactions and by developing innovative solutions and tools for the prevention, control and mitigation of the major parasites affecting Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, common carp, European sea bass, gilthead sea bream and turbot. To achieve these objectives, ParaFishControl brings together a multidisciplinary consortium comprising 30 partners possessing world-leading, complementary, cross-cutting expertise and drawn from public and private research organisations, and the aquaculture industry. The consortium has access to excellent research facilities, diverse biological resources including host-parasite models, and state-of-the-art vaccinology, genomic, proteomic and transcriptomic technologies. The project will: 1) generate new scientific knowledge on key fish parasites, including genomics, life-cycle, invasion strategy and host-parasite interaction data, with special emphasis on host immunity, pathogen virulence and immunomodulation, providing a scientific basis for improved prophylaxis; 2) determine the transfer of parasites between farmed and wild host populations; 3) develop a wide range of novel prophylactic measures, including vaccines and functional feeds; 4) provide a range of advanced or alternative treatments for parasitic diseases; 5) develop cost-effective, specific and sensitive diagnostic tools for key parasitic diseases; 6) assess the risk factors involved in the emergence, transmission and pathogenesis of parasitic diseases; 7) map the zoonotic risks due to fish helminths and; 8) provide a catalogue of good husbandry practices to obtain safe and high-quality fish products.

News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.com

AMERSFOORT, Netherlands, November 29, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- High-value on-farm validation trial on offer In its continuous quest for innovation in animal nutrition and aqua feed, Nutreco is launching a new way to kick-start breakthrough solutions with the Nutreco FeedTech...

News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

In its continuous quest for innovation in animal nutrition and aqua feed, Nutreco is launching a new way to kick-start breakthrough solutions with the Nutreco FeedTech Challenge. Centred around the question 'What is your breakthrough innovation - that CANNOT wait?' Nutreco calls for the brightest minds to help realise sustainable food production for a growing world population. The winner receives a unique prize in the form of a scientific on-farm validation trial in one of Nutreco's research farms. Nutreco has been at the forefront of some of the major breakthrough innovations that have made food production more sustainable. With a world population growing to over 9 billion by 2050 and finite natural resources, the animal nutrition and aqua feed industry needs to step up its efforts. The Nutreco FeedTech Challenge offers a 'greenhouse & pressure cooker' environment aimed at identifying, nurturing and enriching high potential concepts in pilot or proof-of-concept phases. Nutreco CEO Knut Nesse points out that the validation trial for the winner is the biggest boost any start-up could wish for. "At Nutreco we focus on bringing new science and technologies to farmers, faster and more effectively. We know that validation and knowledge on how to apply new technologies in a real farm environment are crucial for farmers to embrace innovation." "This challenge and in particular the validation trial can provide a significant contribution to introducing new breakthrough innovations into real life. For start-ups it is a great opportunity to accelerate the development of their innovations, possibly even leading to a funding offer from Nutreco or one of our partners." Over a competition period of two months, contestants will participate in an online platform where entries are open for comments, discussions and contributions from others. This provides a unique opportunity to connect with other start-ups, industry experts, scientists, and ultimately with farmers and the rest of the world. In that respect, the Nutreco FeedTech Challenge is different from most other start-up competitions. Also because the winner is not rewarded with a cash prize, but with a high-value and rare opportunity for a scientific on-farm validation trial. Centred around the question 'What is your breakthrough innovation - that CANNOT wait?', the Nutreco FeedTech Challenge hopes to inspire start-ups with breakthrough innovations in the following three areas: More information on the themes can be accessed via http://www.nutrecofeedtechchallenge.com. The international jury is chaired by Prof. Dr. Ir. Daniel Berckmans of KU Leuven. He is an expert in animal and human health engineering, and one of the pioneers of precision livestock farming. The other members of the jury are: Every contestant will be a winner The Nutreco FeedTech Challenge is set up in such a way, that every contestant is a winner. In the first phase from 29 November 2016 until 17 January 2017, entries receive valuable feedback and enrichment from industry experts and scientists. An expert jury will then select ten finalists, who will receive further feedback and training in pressure cooker sessions during the two-day Nutreco FeedTech Challenge Event on 22 and 23 February in The Netherlands. At this event, the winner will be selected and receives a scientific on-farm validation trial in one of Nutreco´s research farms, including a validation report. Nutreco is a global leader in animal nutrition and aqua feed. Nutreco's advanced feed solutions are at the origin of food for millions of consumers worldwide. Quality, innovation and sustainability are guiding principles, embedded in the Nutreco culture from research and raw material procurement to products and services for livestock farming and aquaculture. Experience across 100 years brings Nutreco a rich heritage of knowledge and expertise for building its future. Nutreco employs approximately 11,000 people in 35 countries with net sales of € 5.7 billion in 2015. Its two global company brands Skretting (aqua feed) and Trouw Nutrition (animal nutrition) have sales in over 90 countries. Nutreco is a wholly owned subsidiary of SHV Holdings N.V., a family-owned multinational with net sales of €18.1 billion in 2015.

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