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Oneil C.E.,Louisiana State University | Nicklas T.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Zanovec M.,Louisiana State University | Cho S.S.,NutraSource | Kleinman R.,Harvard University
Public Health Nutrition

Objective: To examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents.Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data.Setting: The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Subjects: Children aged 2-5 years (n 2278) and 6-12 years (n 3868) and adolescents aged 13-18 years (n 4931). The participants were divided into four WG consumption groups: ≥0 to <06, ≥0.6 to <1.5, ≥1.5 to <3.0 and ≥3.0 servings/d. Nutrient intake and diet quality, using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, were determined for each group from a single 24 h dietary recall.Results: The mean number of servings of WG consumed was 045, 059 and 063 for children/adolescents at the age of 2-5, 6-12 and 13-18 years, respectively. In all groups, HEI and intakes of energy, fibre, vitamin B6, folate, magnesium, phosphorus and iron were significantly higher in those consuming 30 servings of WG/d; intakes of protein, total fat, SFA and MUFA and cholesterol levels were lower. Intakes of PUFA (6-12 years), vitamins B1 (2-5 and 13-18 years), B2 (13-18 years), A (2-5 and 13-18 years) and E (13-18 years) were higher in those groups consuming ≥3.0 servings of WG/d; intakes of added sugars (2-5 years), vitamin C (2-5 and 6-12 years), potassium and sodium (6-12 years) were lower.Conclusions: Overall consumption of WG was low. Children and adolescents who consumed the most servings of WG had better diet quality and nutrient intake. © 2010 The Authors. Source

Guerin-Deremaux L.,Roquette Freres | Pochat M.,Roquette Freres | Reifer C.,Sprim Advanced Life science | Wils D.,Roquette Freres | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition Research

Strong evidence supports the ability of dietary fibers to improve satiety. However, large variations in the physical and chemical characteristics of dietary fiber modulate the physiologic responses. We hypothesized that a nonviscous soluble dietary fiber may influence satiety. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 100 overweight healthy adults in China investigated the effect of different dosages of dietary supplementation with a dextrin, NUTRIOSE (ROQUETTE frères, Lestrem, France), on short-term satiety over time. Subjects were randomized by body mass index and energy intake and then assigned to receive either placebo or 8, 14, 18, or 24 g/d of NUTRIOSE mixed with orange juice (n = 20 volunteers per group). On days -2, 0, 2, 5, 7, 14, and 21, short-term satiety was evaluated with a visual analog scale, and hunger feeling status was assessed with Likert scale. NUTRIOSE exhibits a progressive and significant impact on short-term satiety, which is time and dosage correlated. Some statistical differences appear for the group 8 g/d from day 5, and from day 0 for the groups 14, 18, and 24 g/d. The hunger feeling status decreases significantly from day 5 to the end of the evaluation for the group 24 g and from day 7 for the groups 14 and 18 g. By day 5, the group 24 g showed significantly longer time to hunger between meals compared with placebo. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with a soluble fiber can decrease hunger feeling and increase short-term satiety over time when added to a beverage from 8 to 24 g/d with time- and dose-responses relationship. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

O'Neil C.E.,Louisiana State University | Zanovec M.,Louisiana State University | Cho S.S.,NutraSource | Nicklas T.A.,Baylor College of Medicine
Nutrition Research

This study examined the association of whole grain consumption with body weight measures and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults. A secondary analysis of 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data was conducted using adults 19 to 50 years of age (y) (n = 7,039) and 51+ y (n = 6,237). Participants were categorized by whole grain consumption: ≥ 0 to <0.6, ≥ 0.6 to <1.5, ≥ 1.5 to <3.0, and ≥ 3.0 servings/day. Main outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and prevalence of overweight/obesity. Sample weights were applied and the number and percentages of adults in whole grain consumption groups were determined. Least-square means and standard errors were calculated for body weight measures. Two regression models were developed and compared. Model 1 covariates included age, gender, ethnicity, and total energy intake; Model 2 was extended to include cereal fiber. Trend analysis was conducted to test for differences between least-square means. Significance was set at P ≤ .05. Adults 19-50 and 51+ y consumed a mean of 0.63 and 0.77 servings of whole grains/day, respectively. A significant trend was observed in both age groups for increased consumption of whole grains with lower BMI, WC, and percentage overweight/obese (Model 1); however, a significant trend was not observed when cereal fiber was added as a covariate (Model 2). Results confirm overall whole grain intake well below recommendations, and adults who consumed the most servings of whole grains had lower body weight measures. Results also suggest that fiber in whole grain foods may mediate associations with weight measures in adults. Intake of whole grain foods should be encouraged by health professionals. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lee A.W.,NutraSource | Cho S.S.,NutraSource
Nutrition Journal

The objective of this study was to estimate the independent associations between intake of phosphorus (P) and bone health parameters such as bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). It provides odds ratio (OR) of osteoporosis with quartiles of P intake adjusted for covariates (i.e., age, gender, BMI, and consumption of calcium (Ca), protein, total dairy foods, and vitamin D as well as intakes of supplemental Ca, vitamin D, and multivitamins/minerals). Data came from males and females aged 13-99 years who participated in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Analyses showed that higher P intake was associated with higher Ca intake, and that dietary Ca:P ratios (0.51-0.62, with a mean of 0.60 for adults) were adequate in all age/gender groups. High intake of P was positively associated with BMC in female teenagers (Q4 vs. Q1: BMC, 30.9 ± 1.1 vs. 29.0 ± 0.5 g, P = 0.001). It was also positively associated with BMC and BMD as well as reduced risk of osteoporosis in adults >20 years of age (Q4 vs. Q1: OR of osteoporosis, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39- 0.79; P = 0.001; BMC, 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 36.70 ± 0.3 g, P < 0.01; BMD, 0.986 ± 0.004 vs. 0.966 ± 0.005 g/cm2, P < 0.05). The data suggest that high intake of P has no adverse effect on bone metabolism in populations with adequate Ca intake, and that it is also associated with positive bone parameters in some age/gender groups. © 2015 Lee and Cho.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Gao Y.,Yantai University | Shen J.,Yantai University | Yin J.,Yantai University | Li C.,Yantai University | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology

We conducted a 90-day feeding study to investigate subchronic toxicity of rice hull fiber. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups; each received a diet containing 0%, 2.5%, 3.75% and 5.0% (w/w) rice hull fiber for 90. days. Clinical observations were carried out daily, with weekly measurements of body weight and food consumption. We performed ophthalmic and histological examinations at termination. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure hematology and clinical chemistry parameters. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities, or adverse treatment-related effects were seen during clinical observations, hematological tests, or analyses of urine. Macroscopic or microscopic examinations of organs revealed no treatment related abnormalities. The only treatment related significant changes were reduced concentrations of fasting blood glucose (up to 17.6%) and cholesterol (up to 22.0%), typical benefits of dietary fiber, in males treated with 3.75 and 5% rice hull fiber. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for rice hull fiber was 5.0% for both genders (females, 3.80. g/kg body weight/day; males, 4.11. g/kg body weight/day). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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