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Perez-Sanchez A.,University Miguel Hernández | Barrajon-Catalan E.,University Miguel Hernández | Caturla N.,Monteloeder S.L. | Castillo J.,Nutrafur SA | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2014

Ultraviolet radiation absorbed by the epidermis is the major cause of various cutaneous disorders, including photoaging and skin cancers. Although topical sunscreens may offer proper skin protection, dietary plant compounds may significantly contribute to lifelong protection of skin health, especially when unconsciously sun UV exposed. A combination of rosemary and citrus bioflavonoids extracts was used to inhibit UV harmful effects on human HaCaT keratinocytes and in human volunteers after oral intake. Survival of HaCaT cells after UVB radiation was higher in treatments using the combination of extracts than in those performed with individual extracts, indicating potential synergic effects. The combination of extracts also decreased UVB-induced intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) and prevented DNA damage in HaCaT cells by comet assay and decreased chromosomal aberrations in X-irradiated human lymphocytes. The oral daily consumption of 250 mg of the combination by human volunteers revealed a significant minimal erythema dose (MED) increase after eight weeks (34%, p < 0.05). Stronger protection was achieved after 12 weeks (56%, p < 0.01). The combination of citrus flavonoids and rosemary polyphenols and diterpenes may be considered as an ingredient for oral photoprotection. Their mechanism of action may deserve further attention. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2012-2 | Award Amount: 2.86M | Year: 2013

European Chemicals Industry supplies European Textile & Clothing industry with textile fibres, 75% of which are synthetic (polyester, elastane, nylon). The European Biomass Industry needs to gain market share to the petrochemical industry as supplier of sustainable biomaterials to the Chemicals Industry. More than 99.9% of the world synthetic fibers are made of non-renewable petrochemical resources. As proclaimed by EURATEX, the access to raw materials (especially cotton, man-made fibres and chemicals) is becoming an extremely urgent problem for the EU Textiles & Clothing industry. The steep growth of emerging economies (China, Indi, Brazil) is leading to scarcity and price fluctuations, translated into Textile companies facing huge cost increases. EcoLASTANE will develop a high quality, 70%-100% bio-based synthetic textile fibres (bio-based elastane and polyester) by optimising an industrial technology that starting from lignocellulosic feedstocks (wood, crop residues, etc) produces 100% bio-based chemicals (furfural, HMF, THF and FDCA). EcoLASTANE will optimise the synthesis of furfural in Europe by increasing yield, reducing costs, recovering solvents and acetic acid, valorising cellulose for the production of HMF (bio-based monomer with a huge potential still not brought to industrial scale) and producing an in-plant burnable bio-char from lignin to generate heat. From furfural we will optimise the synthesis of 100% bio-based THF, a starting material accounting for 70% of the mass of an elastane elastic fibre. From HMF we will develop a new 100% bio-based polyester textile fibre. Textile products containing EcoLASTANE fibres will have a differentiated, high added value based on: inexpensive price, identical chemical structure (and thus manufacturing and weaving behaviour) to current petrochemical alternatives, bio-based content and eco-efficient production. Our fibres will not need any change of todays technologies for producing synthetic filaments.


Jordan M.J.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Castillo J.,Nutrafur SA | Castillo J.,University of Murcia | Banon S.,University of Murcia | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether the relation between the concentrations of the two major diterpenes present in two typified rosemary extracts affects their levels of deposition and antioxidant capacity in different lamb tissues. The composition of the extracts expressed as percentage of weight/weight was 1:1 (14-16)% and 2:1 (25-11)% (carnosic acid-carnosol), respectively. Thirty weaned lambs were assigned randomly to three homogeneous groups. One group was fed a basal diet as a control and the diets of the other two were enriched with rosemary extracts 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. HPLC-ESI-MS/TOF identified a metabolite (C19H22O 3) described for the first time in lamb tissues, along with carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmanol and carnosol-p-quinone. The results obtained corroborate the importance of the presence of carnosol in the dietary administration of rosemary extract as a way of improving the stability of the diterpene fraction during feed manufacturing and the level of deposition and antioxidant efficacy of diterpenes after ruminal fermentation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Baldasquin-Caceres B.,University of Murcia | Gomez-Garcia F.J.,University of Murcia | Lopez-Jornet P.,University of Murcia | Castillo-Sanchez J.,Nutrafur SA | Vicente-Ortega V.,University of Murcia
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2014

Objective To evaluate the chemopreventive potential of phenolic compounds - potassium apigenin, cocoa, catechins, eriocitrin and rosmarinic acid in oral carcinogenesis induced in hamsters by means of the topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene(DMBA). Study design An experimental study at the University of Murcia. Methods 50 male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were divided into five groups of ten: Group I (control group): 0.5% DMBA; Group II: 0.5% DMBA + 1.1 mg/15 ml potassium apigenin; Group III: 05% DMBA + 2.5 mg/15 ml cocoa catechins; Group IV: 0.5% DMBA + 6 mg/15 ml eriocitrin; Group V: 0.5% DMBA + 1.3 mg/15 ml rosmarinic acid. The flavonoids were administered orally. All the animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. Macroscopic, microscopic and immunohistochemical (PCNA and p53) analyses of the lesions were performed. Results All the groups treated with phenolic compounds showed lower incidences of tumour, greater differentiation and lower scores in the tumour invasion front grading system in comparison with the control group. Potassium apigenin and rosmarinic acid achieved the best results, the former considerably reduced the carcinoma tumour volumes developed and both significantly reduced the intensity and aggression of the tumours. Immunoexpression of PCNA and p53 were significantly altered during DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. Conclusions Animals treated with phenolic compounds, particularly potassium apigenin and rosmarinic acid, showed a lower incidence of tumours. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Ruiz-Cano D.,University of Murcia | Perez-Llamas F.,University of Murcia | Frutos M.J.,University Miguel Hernández | Arnao M.B.,University of Murcia | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

In this study, the basic chemical composition and functional properties of six by-product fractions collected from different steps of artichoke industrial processing were evaluated. Fractions differed in thermal treatment, the bract position in the artichoke head and the cutting size. Contents of moisture, ash, protein, fat, dietary fibre, inulin, total phenolics, total flavonoids, caffeoyl derivatives and flavones were analysed. Antioxidant activity values were also determined. All assessed artichoke by-product fractions contained high-dietary fibre (53.6-67.0%) and low fat (2.5-3.7%). Artichoke by-product fractions contained high levels of inulin, especially in the boiled inner bracts (30%). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity (153-729 μmol gallic acid equivalents, 6.9-19.2 μmol quercetin equivalents and 85-234 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents per gram of dry matter, respectively) varied widely with the bract positions in the artichoke head and the thermal treatments. The more interesting fractions for use as functional ingredients were those situated closer to the artichoke heart and thermally treated. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bayoa J.,Technical University of Cartagena | Estebana G.,Technical University of Cartagena | Castillob J.,Nutrafur SA
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2012

This paper describes the use of native and protonated grapefruit biomass, a by-product of the food industry, as an effective and low-cost biosorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. The biomass composition was analysed by highperformance liquid chromatography, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, showing that hydroxyl and carboxylic groups were the main functional groups implicated in Cd(II) biosorption. The effect of different parameters affecting the biosorption process were studied. The optimum removal of cadmium ions was at pH 4.5. Elution of alkaline-earth ions proved to be related with cadmium uptake, aiming for an ionexchange mechanism. Protonated biomass showed higher adsorption affinity, binding strength and irreversibility for cadmium than native grapefruit, although the optimum metal uptake and high reaction rate was for the native form of grapefruit. Biosorption experimental data fitted Freundlich > Langmuir > Temkin equilibrium adsorption models. Data for both types of biomass were better fitted by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with an excellent correlation between calculated and experimental values. Because of these experimental results, and taking into account that both types of biomass displayed an exothermic and spontaneous physical adsorption process, native grapefruit can be proposed in further experiments as a cheap, effective, low-cost and environmentally friendly natural sorbent for the removal of cadmium fromindustrial wastewater effluents, avoiding chemical pretreatment before its use. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Guerrero L.,Rovira i Virgili University | Guerrero L.,ALPINA S.A | Castillo J.,Nutrafur SA | Quinones M.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Previous studies have demonstrated that certain flavonoids can have an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, which plays a key role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. In the present study, 17 flavonoids belonging to five structural subtypes were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit ACE in order to establish the structural basis of their bioactivity. The ACE inhibitory (ACEI) activity of these 17 flavonoids was determined by fluorimetric method at two concentrations (500 μM and 100 μM). Their inhibitory potencies ranged from 17 to 95% at 500 μM and from 0 to 57% at 100 μM. In both cases, the highest ACEI activity was obtained for luteolin. Following the determination of ACEI activity, the flavonoids with higher ACEI activity (i.e., ACEI >60% at 500 μM) were selected for further IC50 determination. The IC50 values for luteolin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, rhoifolin and apigenin K were 23, 43, 64, 178, 183 and 196 μM, respectively. Our results suggest that flavonoids are an excellent source of functional antihypertensive products. Furthermore, our structure-activity relationship studies show that the combination of sub-structures on the flavonoid skeleton that increase ACEI activity is made up of the following elements: (a) the catechol group in the B-ring, (b) the double bond between C2 and C3 at the C-ring, and (c) the cetone group in C4 at the C-ring. Protein-ligand docking studies are used to understand the molecular basis for these results. © 2012 Guerrero et al.


PubMed | Nutrafur SA and University of Murcia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of oral biology | Year: 2014

To evaluate the chemopreventive potential of phenolic compounds - potassium apigenin, cocoa, catechins, eriocitrin and rosmarinic acid in oral carcinogenesis induced in hamsters by means of the topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene(DMBA).An experimental study at the University of Murcia.50 male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were divided into five groups of ten: Group I (control group): 0.5% DMBA; Group II: 0.5% DMBA+1.1mg/15ml potassium apigenin; Group III: 05% DMBA+2.5mg/15ml cocoa catechins; Group IV: 0.5% DMBA+6mg/15ml eriocitrin; Group V: 0.5% DMBA+1.3mg/15ml rosmarinic acid. The flavonoids were administered orally. All the animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. Macroscopic, microscopic and immunohistochemical (PCNA and p53) analyses of the lesions were performed.All the groups treated with phenolic compounds showed lower incidences of tumour, greater differentiation and lower scores in the tumour invasion front grading system in comparison with the control group. Potassium apigenin and rosmarinic acid achieved the best results, the former considerably reduced the carcinoma tumour volumes developed and both significantly reduced the intensity and aggression of the tumours. Immunoexpression of PCNA and p53 were significantly altered during DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis.Animals treated with phenolic compounds, particularly potassium apigenin and rosmarinic acid, showed a lower incidence of tumours.


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