Coslada, Spain
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Gonzalez-Anover P.,NUTEGA | Encinas T.,Complutense University of Madrid
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2012

Current study aimed to determine possible differences in plasma leptin levels during the prepuberal period and their relationship with the onset of puberty in gilts of obese thrifty genotype (Iberian breed) and lean genotype (Large White × Landrace commercial crosses) reared under similar conditions. Plasma leptin concentration increased linearly during the 7. weeks prior to the day of puberty attainment in both genotypes (P< 0.005, r= 0.707 for LW × L and P< 0.0005, r= 0.874 for Iberian gilts). However, leptin levels in the Iberian gilts was higher from the first sample of the experimental period, with females having 16. weeks-old (2.7 ± 0.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.2. ng/ml in LW × L; P< 0.001), to the onset of puberty (8.5 ± 0.7 vs 2.8 ± 0.3. ng/ml in LW × L; P< 0.005). Thus, the current study reinforces previous data on changes in around puberty and evidences, for the first time, profound differences in prepuberal plasma leptin levels between gilts of obese (Iberian) and lean genotypes (LW × L). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gonzalez-Anover P.,NUTEGA | Encinas T.,Complutense University of Madrid | Torres-Rovira L.,INIA | Pallares P.,INIA | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

The Mediterranean Iberian pigs are obese genotypes, due to a leptin resistance syndrome related to leptin receptor gene polymorphisms. The Iberian pig is affected by a lower prolificacy when compared to lean breeds, and thus may constitute a good animal model for adverse effects of obesity in reproductive performance. The present study determined possible differences in rates of ovulation and embryo implantation and later incidence of embryo mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in sows of Iberian breed (n = 23) and highly-prolific lean commercial crosses (Large White × Landrace, n = 17) at two critical periods of swine pregnancy: Day 21 (just after achievement of trophoblast attachment) and Day 35 (just after completion of the transition from late embryo to early foetal stage). Two different reproductive performances were identified in the Iberian breed; 58.3% of the females had lower ovulation rates than LWxL (13.2 ± 2.3 vs 22.5 ± 1.6, P < 0.05), but 41.7% had a similar number of ovulations (18.2 ± 3.9). However, those Iberian sows having high ovulatory rates showed a high incidence of regression of corpora lutea and embryo losses between Days 21 and 35, which was not found in Iberian females with low ovulation rates; therefore, the number of viable embryos was similar in both Iberian groups (8.2 ± 1.0 and 8.4 ± 1.0) and lower that in highly-prolific LWxL (14.8 ± 1.8, P < 0.05). At Day 35, a total of 167 conceptuses (73 LWxL and 94 IB) were evaluated for IUGR. The LWxL conceptuses were longer and wider than Iberian (69.5 ± 0.1 and 64.4 ± 0.1 vs 49.9 ± 0.1 and 41.9 ± 0.1 mm, P < 0.0001). However, Iberian conceptuses were heavier than LWxL (107.4 ± 6.6 vs 68.6 ± 2.4 g) due to a lower quantity of fluids and a higher development of the placental tissues in comparison to the embryo itself. In conclusion, current study indicates a bimodal effect of obese genotypes on reproductive performances, either by lowering ovulation rate or by increased embryo losses in the first third of pregnancy. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Gonzalez-Anover P.,NUTEGA | Caro A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez-Bote C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to determine, in a female swine model of leptin resistance (Iberian pig), the effect of an obesogenic diet, with high saturated fat content, during the juvenile period, on the appearance of early obesity and its possible effects on metabolic syndrome-related parameters and reproductive features (puberty attainment). Thus, from 130 to 245 days-old, seven Iberian gilts had ad libitum access to food enriched with saturated fat whilst six females acted as controls and had ad libitum access to a commercial maintenance diet. Results showed that a high fat intake-level during the juvenile period induces early obesity with lower body weight and size but a higher body fat-content. Such obesity was related with impairments of glucose regulation predisposing for insulin resistance, but also with an earlier onset of puberty. However, there were no signs of hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension; the gilts diminish their intake level and modify their metabolic features by increasing insulin secretion. In conclusion, Iberian gilts freely eating saturated fat diets during the juvenile period have the prodrome of metabolic syndrome but, during their juvenile period, are still able to develop an adaptive response to the diet. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Gonzalez-Anover P.,NUTEGA | Encinas T.,Complutense University of Madrid | Letelier C.A.,Austral University of Chile
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2011

This study compares follicular function and ovulatory efficiency in 20 sows with obesity/leptin resistance genotype (Iberian pig) and 20 females of lean commercial crosses (Large White × Landrace; LW × L). Estrous cycle was synchronized with progestagens; ovulation was induced with eCG and hCG, in half of the females of each group, to determine its effect. In females of both breeds not treated with gonadotropins, the number of follicles larger than 4.9. mm and the estradiol secretion increased throughout the follicular phase (P< 0.05); estradiol values were similar at estrus detection (22.5 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 0.6. pg/ml respectively, for Iberian and LW × L sows). Moreover, ovulation rate was higher in Iberian pigs (15.3 ± 1.3 CLs) than in LW × L (10.2 ± 1.3 CLs; P< 0.05), with mean progesterone values being 18.1 ± 0.7. ng/ml in Iberian and 16.8 ± 0.6. ng/ml in LW × L pigs. Thus, the preovulatory follicular growth and the ovulatory efficiency seem not to be the main limiting factors for reproductive efficiency in Iberian swine. The gonadotropins induced a significant increase, when compared to untreated females (P< 0.05), in the number of follicles larger than 4.9. mm growing throughout the follicular phase; however, estradiol values at estrus were lower (P< 0.05) in both breeds (9.2 ± 0.7. pg/ml in Iberian vs. 8.6 ± 0.8. pg/ml in LW × L), when compared with the nontreated animals, which suggests defective follicular function after gonadotropin stimulation. There were also no differences between genotypes in ovulation rate (15.2 ± 1.3 vs. 12.7 ± 1.8) and progesterone secretion (21.2 ± 0.8. ng/ml in Iberian and 20.9 ± 0.7. ng/ml in LW × L sows) in the treated animals. In conclusion, the current findings indicate that preovulatory follicular growth and ovulatory efficiency are not main limiting factors for prolificacy in a pig model of leptin resistance and obesity. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Torres-Rovira L.,INIA | Gonzalez-Anover P.,NUTEGA | Pallares P.,INIA | Perez-Solana M.L.,INIA | And 3 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2012

The Mediterranean Iberian pigs show a clear predisposition to obesity, due to gene polymorphisms for leptin receptors, and a lower prolificacy when compared with lean breeds. Previous studies indicate a bimodal effect of obese genotypes on prolificacy; either by lowering ovulation rate or by increasing embryo losses when compared with lean genotypes. The present study aimed to discriminate the relative influence of both parameters by comparing strains of Iberian females with different prolificacy (14 original purebred Retinto, group R, and 20 Retinto × Torbiscal females selected for prolificacy, group RT). Examination of ovaries around Day 40 of pregnancy showed a higher ovulation rate in the RT than in the R sows (21.5 ± 1.4 versus 12.3 ± 1.0 corpora lutea, respectively; P < 0.0005). However, there was a higher incidence of implantation failures and early embryo losses in the RT females (42.9 versus 14% for the group R; P < 0.005). Thus, the number of viable embryos was higher in the RT line (10.8 ± 0.5 versus 7.6 ± 0.7 in the R sows, P < 0.0005), but also limited when compared with ovulation rate. Conversely, this effect was not found in the R sows; however, prolificacy of these females was limited by higher embryo mortality (24.1 versus 4.6% for RT females). In conclusion, the present study evidences dissimilar reproductive behaviour among strains of the Iberian pig differing in prolificacy and confirms previous evidences suggesting the existence of intrinsic factors avoiding excessively large litter sizes in Iberian females. © 2012 CSIRO.

Contents: Iberian pig is the most abundant Mediterranean swine. The lack of knowledge of the reproductive physiology of Mediterranean genotypes, with predisposition to obesity, led us to evaluate the influence of body condition and metabolic status at weaning on the resumption of follicular growth and the appearance of post-weaning oestrus. Females failing to display post-weaning oestrus showed a high decrease in backfat mass during lactation; backfat depth at weaning was therefore lower than in sows becoming in oestrus. Females not bearing oestrus behaviour showed lower plasma leptin levels and higher ghrelin concentrations at weaning. Moreover, these sows evidenced dyslipidemic profile (increased triglyceridemia and cholesterolemia) and mobilization of fat reserves. Hence, changes in metabolic regulation of Iberian pigs may originate large effects on the resumption of ovulatory activity after weaning. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

The effects of age and reproductive status on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of Iberian sows reared in an intensive management system were examined. These animals, with age, are predisposed to hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia which may develop in response to nutritional challenges during lactation. At weaning, high levels of glucose, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-c) with low high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c) are indicative of insulin resistance. Reproductive Biology 2011 11 2: 165-171.

Torres-Rovira L.,INIA | Astiz S.,INIA | Gonzalez-Anover P.,NUTEGA | Pallares P.,INIA | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

The current study indicates that life-long intake, from early-life, of an obesogenic diet with high saturated-fat (HSF) content induces dyslipidemia (high plasma concentrations of triglycerides in concurrence with low concentrations of HDL-cholesterol) in obese swine with leptin resistance (Iberian sows). In case of pregnancy, ovarian features (ovulatory efficiency and luteal steroidogenesis) of sows fed with HSF are not affected but embryo features are affected at so early stages like 28 days of pregnancy (first quarter), although embryo viability was still not affected. In this way, offspring from HSF sows showed a higher incidence of alterations in their developmental trajectory, mainly due to a higher incidence of growth retardation, in their steroidogenic activity and in their availability of triglycerides and cholesterol. In conclusion, the results obtained in the present study illustrate the deleterious effects of maternal dyslipidemia, induced by the intake of HSF diets, on the oestradiol secretion of the conceptuses at early-pregnancy stages and, thus, on their developmental and metabolic features. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and steroids'. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gispert M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Angels Oliver M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Velarde A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Suarez P.,Pfizer | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of immunocastration on meat and carcass quality compared with meat from females, entire and surgically castrated males. One hundred and eighteen (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain crossbred pigs were assigned to four experimental groups: entire males (EM), females (FE), surgically castrated males (CM) and vaccinated males (IM). Pigs were reared in two pens per sex and slaughtered at an average of 180. days of age. Carcass and meat quality characteristics such as testis size and length, fat depth, lean content, proportion of the carcass represented by each joint, pH, colour and intramuscular fat were evaluated. There was a significant reduction in the size of these sexual organs in IM compared with EM. CM and IM were fatter than FE and EM in the loin area but, in the ham area, CM was the fattest and EM the leanest, while IM and FE were in between. Intramuscular fat of IM (2.1%) was no different from the other sexes evaluated, although it was higher in CM (2.5%) with respect to FE (1.7%) and EM (1.8%). There was no difference between the IM and other treatment groups in meat quality. Regarding ours results we can conclude that from the point of view of meat and carcass quality the immunocastration could be a good alternative to the surgical castration. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Torres-Rovira L.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Ovilo C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Astiz S.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | And 5 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2012

The current study was conducted in a swine breed (Iberian pig) with a genotype that predisposed the pig to obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the morphological, metabolomic and endocrine features of early conceptuses and to elucidate how placental gene expression (related to placentation, angiogenesis and fetal nutrition), maternal hormones and the metabolome affect the fetal environment and fetal growth. Conceptus viability and growth were found to be related to maternal endocrine (plasma progesterone levels) and metabolic features (plasma levels of leptin, cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). These features were related to the placental expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and leptin (LEP) genes, the placental efficiency and, thus, the nutrition and the metabolism of the fetus (availability of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, as HDL-c). Viability of conceptuses in females with evidence of dyslipidemia (low plasma levels of total cholesterol due to low HDL-c concentration but high levels of triglycerides) was diminished. The availability of nutrients and metabolic substrates to the conceptus was also affected in females with higher fat deposition and evidence of dyslipidemia. In conclusion, the conceptus viability and growth appear to be strongly related to maternal metabolic features and, thus, affected in females with alterations in lipid metabolism. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

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