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Brookville, OH, United States

Hill T.M.,Nurture Research Center | VandeHaar M.J.,Michigan State University | Sordillo L.M.,Michigan State University | Catherman D.R.,Strauss Feeds | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing milk replacer (MR) with NeoTec4 (Provimi North America, Brookville, OH), a commercially available blend of butyric acid, coconut oil, and flax oil, on calf growth, efficiency, and indices of immune function. In trial 1a, 48 male Holstein calves were fed either a control MR that contained only animal fat or the same MR with NeoTec4 (treatment) along with free-choice starter. The MR (28.7% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of dry matter (DM)/d. In trial 1b, weaned calves from trial 1a were all fed dry starter for 28 d without NeoTec4 (phase 1), and then half the calves were fed NeoTec4 for 28 d (phase 2). In trial 2, 40 male Holstein calves were fed a control MR with lard, coconut oil, and soy lecithin or the same MR supplemented with NeoTec4 (treatment). The MR (22.8% crude protein, 18.9% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of DM/d; no starter was fed. In trial 1a, NeoTec4 improved average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, reduced the number of days that calves experienced scours, and reduced the medical treatments for clostridium sickness. In trials 1a and 2, NeoTec4 altered the inflammatory response to vaccination with Pasteurella at 5 wk of age and to challenge with Salmonella toxin at less than 2 wk of age (fed NeoTec4 for 6 d), as observed by reduced hyperthermia and hypophagia, and altered the tumor necrosis factor-α response. In addition, NeoTec4 enhanced the response in IL-4 and globular protein estimates postchallenge and enhanced titers for bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3. Postchallenge serum concentrations of albumin were lower and urea nitrogen concentrations were greater in control calves than in calves fed NeoTec4. In trial 1b, performance did not differ during the first 28 d when no calves received NeoTec4, but calves receiving NeoTec4 in the second 28 d had greater average daily gain and feed efficiency. We conclude that supplementation of MR with NeoTec4 alters some immune and inflammatory responses, including increasing titers to bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3 vaccinations, reduces scours, reduces medical treatments for clostridium sickness, and improves growth rates and feed efficiency. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Hill T.M.,Nurture Research Center | Bateman H.G.,Nurture Research Center | Quigley J.D.,Nurture Research Center | Aldrich J.M.,Nurture Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2013

Research published since publication of the 2001 NRC publication Nutrient Requirements for Dairy Cattle relating to protein needs of calves and heifers was reviewed and compared with requirements from NRC (2001). Experiments used varied intakes or concentrations of CP or varied fractions of CP in the diet relative to energy. Animal requirements were reviewed in 4 categories to identify advances in understanding of nutritional requirements since publication of NRC (2001). Categories included 1) preweaned calves less than 2 mo of age fed milk or milk replacer and starter, 2) calves transitioning through weaning to approximately 4 mo of age fed starter with limited forage, 3) heifers from 4 mo to breeding, and 4) postbreeding age heifers. For calves in category 1, new data estimating optimal ratios of amino acids were identified. For calves in categories 1 and 2, new data estimating optimum ratios of CP to ME were identified but were limited. For heifers in category 3, optimum diet CP:ME appeared similar to NRC (2001). There were no experiments that tested the 70% RDP of CP recommendation for calves in category 3; however, approximately 65% RDP supported more typical dairy heifer ADG than did lower amounts. Few differences from NRC (2001) were found for heifers in category 4. Precision or limit feeding versus more conventional ad libitum feeding programs appears to offer utility to save costs and reduce nutrient and fecal outputs with dietary adjustments to maintain protein intake relative to energy and DMI. © 2013 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists. Source


Bateman H.G.,Nurture Research Center | Hill T.M.,Nurture Research Center | Aldrich J.M.,Nurture Research Center | Schlotterbeck R.L.,Nurture Research Center | Firkins J.L.,Ohio State University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

A data set was constructed from individual calf means gathered in the Nurture Research Center (Lewisburg, OH) and used in a meta-analysis to parameterize an empirical model predicting growth measures for neonatal calves. The data set contained 993 observations from 20 research trials conducted in all seasons of multiple years. Growth measures gathered included average daily gain (ADG) preweaning, postweaning, and through 8 wk of age. Independent variables gathered included age at weaning; total starter intake (SI); total milk replacer intake (MRI); milk replacer CP (MRCP) and fat (MRfat) contents; number of days with abnormal fecal scores (AFS); average environmental temperature preweaning, postweaning, and through 8 wk of age; minimum and maximum temperature during the entire 8 wk; body weight at d 0; and initial serum protein concentration. Additionally, the interactions of SI, MRI, and MRCP and MRfat were considered for the model. Backward elimination multiple regressions were conducted using a mixed model with a random effect of trial. The final model for total ADG indicated that increasing SI or MRI improves calf growth. Also, increasing MRCP or MRfat increased growth. Increased sickness (as measured by increased AFS) or increased body weight at d 0 decreased ADG. Growth of neonatal dairy calves appears to be more controlled by nutrient intake and their interactions than by surrogates for health status of the calves (AFS and initial serum protein concentration) or environmental temperature. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Suarez-Mena F.X.,Pennsylvania State University | Hill T.M.,Nurture Research Center | Heinrichs A.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Bateman H.G.,Nurture Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

A series of 5 trials was conducted to determine the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DG) in calf diets. Trial 1 compared 0 or 49% DG in 18% crude protein (CP) starters (as-fed basis) fed to calves initially 2 to 3 d old for 56 d. Digestibility was estimated during d 52 to 56 using chromic oxide. Trial 2 compared 0 or 39% DG in 16% CP growers fed to calves from 8 to 12 wk of age from 28 d. Trial 3 compared 0, 10, or 20% DG in 18% CP starters fed to calves initially 2 to 3 d old for 56 d. Trial 4 compared 0 or 20% DG in 16% CP growers fed to calves from 8 to 12 wk of age from 28 d. As DG increased in all diets, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and fat increased and calculated metabolizable energy was similar but not equalized. In trials 1 and 3, calves (n = 48/trial) housed in individual pens were fed 26% CP, 17% fat milk replacer powder and weaned at 28 d. Trials 2 and 4 used calves (n = 48/trial) housed in group pens (6 calves/pen) that had been weaned for 28 d before the trials' start. Trial 5 (n = 18 calves) had the same starter treatments as trial 3 fed in combination with high or low milk replacer intake, with calves killed at 35 d to determine effects of DG and milk replacer intake on rumen development. In trial 1, average daily gain (ADG) was 6% greater and dry matter digestibility was 10% greater for calves fed 0% versus 49% DG. In trial 2, ADG (9%), feed efficiency (10%), and hip width change (19%) were greater for calves fed 0% versus 39% DG. Performance measures did not differ among starter treatments in Trials 3 and 5. In trial 4, ADG (4%), feed efficiency (5%), and hip width change (19%) were greater for calves fed 0% versus 20% DG. In trial 5, rumen development was not affected by DG inclusion, but was greater for calves fed milk replacer at 630 versus 940. g/d, which had greater starter intake. Overall, we conclude that high levels of distillers in calf starters and growers decrease growth of calves; however, starters with ≤20% DG allow for normal growth rates and rumen development. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Hill T.M.,Nurture Research Center | Bateman H.G.,Nurture Research Center | Aldrich J.M.,Nurture Research Center | Schlotterbeck R.L.,Nurture Research Center
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

Housing, bedding, and summer cooling were management options evaluated. Holstein calves (42±2kg of body weight) initially 2 to 5 d of age were managed in southwest Ohio in poly hutches or wire mesh pens in a curtain-sided nursery with no supplemental heat. Calves were fed milk replacer (27% crude protein, 17% fat fed at 0.657kg of dry matter per calf daily), starter (20% crude protein dry matter, textured, fed free-choice), and water (free-choice). Measurements were for 56 d. In trial 1, 28 calves per treatment were bedded with straw and housed in either hutches or nursery pens. This trial was conducted from September to March; the average temperature was 8°C and ranged from -17 to 31°C. In trial 2a, 16 calves per treatment were managed in nursery pens bedded with straw, in nursery pens bedded with sand, or in hutches bedded with sand. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 21°C and ranged from 7 to 33°C. In trial 2b, 26 calves per treatment were housed in nursery pens and bedded with straw. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 22°C and ranged from 8 to 34°C. One treatment was cooled with fans between 0800 and 1700h and the other was not. Data were analyzed as repeated measures in a completely randomized block design by trial, with calf as the experimental unit. In trial 3, air in the nursery and calf hutches used above was sampled 35 d apart for calves aged 5 and 40 d. Air in individual hutches on 2 commercial farms was sampled for 5- and 40-d-old calves for 2 hutch types. Air in the multi-calf hutches was sampled for calves of 75 and 110 d of age. Bacterial concentrations of air samples were analyzed (log 10) as odds ratios by Proc Logistic in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); differences were declared at P<0.05. In trial 1, weight gain of calves in nursery pens was 6% greater and feed efficiency was 4% greater than that of calves in hutches. In trial 2a, weight gain and starter intake of calves in the nursery with straw bedding were greater and scouring was less than that in calves bedded with sand in the nursery or hutches. The relative humidity was greater in the hutches than in the nursery pens. In trial 2b, weight gain, feed efficiency, and hip width change were greater and breaths per minute were less for calves cooled with fans compared with calves that were not cooled. In trial 3, airborne bacteria concentrations were greater in the hutches than in the nursery pens. Straw bedding (vs. sand), nursery pens (vs. hutches), and summer daytime cooling with fans improved calf weight gain. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Source

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