Nursery and Garden Industry Australia

Nursery and, Australia

Nursery and Garden Industry Australia

Nursery and, Australia
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Niazi N.K.,University of Sydney | Niazi N.K.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Singh B.,University of Sydney | Van Zwieten L.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Kachenko A.G.,Nursery and Garden Industry Australia
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2012

This field study investigated the phytoremediation potential of two arsenic (As) hyperaccumulating fern species, Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana and Pteris vittata over 27-month duration at a disused As-contaminated cattle-dip site located at Wollongbar, NSW, Australia. Ferns planted in January 2009 were harvested following 10, 22 and 27 months of growth. A detailed soil sampling was undertaken in June 2009 (initial, n = 42 per plot) and limited sampling in April 2011 (after 27 months, n = 15 per plot) to measure total and phosphate-extractable As concentrations in soil at 0 - 20-, 20 - 40- and 40 - 60-cm depths. The choice of the limited number of samples was considered sufficient to estimate the changes in soil As concentration following phytoremediation based on a geostatistical model. The average frond dry biomass, As concentration and As uptake were significantly (P < 0. 001 - 0. 05) greater in P. calomelanos var. austroamericana than P. vittata, at all three harvests (1. 6 - 4. 3, 1. 3 - 1. 5 and 2. 2 - 5. 7 times, respectively). After 27-months of growth, P. calomelanos var. austroamericana removed 8,053 mg As (i. e. cumulative over three harvests) in plot B (25. 4 kg As ha-1) that was 2. 65 times higher than that depleted by P. vittata (3,042 mg As in plot A (9. 7 kg As ha-1)). The cumulative frond As uptake data of the two fern species revealed that P. calomelanos var. austroamericana extracted 1. 7 - 3. 9 % and P. vittata removed 0. 53 - 1. 5 % of total As from soil at three depths. However, for the surface (0 - 20 cm) and subsurface (40 - 60 cm) layers, the (post-experiment) soil As data indicated that total As concentration in soil was reduced by 49 and 63 % (P < 0. 05), respectively, using P. calomelanos var. austroamericana; and 17 and 15 % (P > 0. 05), respectively, by P. vittata. Our results show that phytoremediation time based on observed changes in soil As based on limited sampling is not reliable; hence, it is recommended that the frond As uptake should be considered in order to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of the two fern species at the experimental site. Using As uptake of the two fern species, we estimate that with P. calomelanos var. austroamericana it would take 55 - 125 years to decrease mean total As content below the ecological investigation level (20 mg kg-1) in the surface and subsurface soils, whereas with P. vittata 143 - 412 years would be required to achieve this target. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Niazi N.K.,University of Sydney | Singh B.,University of Sydney | Van Zwieten L.,Wollongbar Primary Industries Institute | Kachenko A.G.,Nursery and Garden Industry Australia
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2011

This study examined the phytoextraction potential of two arsenic (As) hyperaccumulators, Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana at a historical As-contaminated cattle dip site in northern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Total As concentration in the surface soil (0-20 cm) showed a better spatial structure than phosphateextractableAs in the surface and sub-surface soil at this site. P. calomelanos var. austroamericana produced greater frond dry biomass (mean = 130 g plant ;-1;) than P. vittata (mean = 81 g plant ;-1;) after 10 months of growth. Arsenic concentration and uptake in fronds were also significantly higher in P. calomelanos var. austroamericana (means=887 mg kg ;-1; and 124 mg plant ;-1;) than in P. vittata (means = 674 mg kg ;-1;and 57 mg plant ;-1;). Our results showed that under the field conditions and highly variable soil As at the site, P. calomelanos var. austroamericana performed better than P. vittata. We predict that P. calomelanos var. austroamericana would take approximately 100 years to reduce the total As to below 20 mg kg ;-1; at the site compared to ≥ 200 years estimated for P. vittata. However, long-term data are required to confirm these observations under field conditions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Chen D.,CSIRO | Wang X.,CSIRO | Thatcher M.,CSIRO | Barnett G.,CSIRO | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

The potential benefit of urban vegetation in reducing heat related mortality in the city of Melbourne, Australia is investigated using a two-scale modelling approach. A meso-scale urban climate model was used to quantify the effects of ten urban vegetation schemes on the current climate in 2009 and future climates in 2030 and 2050. The indoor thermal performance of five residential buildings was then simulated using a building simulation tool with the local meso-climates associated with various urban vegetation schemes. Simulation results suggest that average seasonal summer temperatures can be reduced in the range of around 0.5 and 2 °C if the city were replaced by vegetated suburbs and parklands, respectively. With the limited buildings and local meso-climates investigated in this study, around 5-28% and 37-99% reduction in heat related mortality rate have been estimated by doubling the city's vegetation coverage and transforming the city into parklands respectively. Crown Copyright © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aldous D.E.,University of Queensland | Loch D.S.,University of Queensland | Prince R.,Nursery and Garden Industry Australia
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The lifestyle horticulture industry can best be described as a "living green industry". It involves the production, sale, management and maintenance of plants used for environmental, recreational and leisure purposes. In Australia, this specialised sector of horticulture has become one of the more profitable and rapidly growing primary industries since World War II. This paper discusses the significance of the Australian lifestyle horticulture industry in terms of its environmental, aesthetic, social and recreational values in the urban environment where 87% of Australians live, work and play, as well as the impact of these commodities and services on the health and well-being of those communities. The industry also generates substantial direct and indirect economic benefits. However, the few available statistics from which the size of the industry can be assessed are, at best, unreliable. While these do indicate that the lifestyle horticulture industry is one of the largest agricultural industry groupings, they grossly underestimate the full value of lifestyle horticulture activities in Australia. As a result, the commodities and services associated with the lifestyle horticulture industry have been poorly recognised and undervalued by the wider agricultural sector. Governments at all levels, as well as the community at large, can be said to take the value and benefits from the lifestyle horticulture industry for granted. Greater discussion needs to take place between the government, industry and community to increase teaching, research and extension funding into the lifestyle horticulture industry that contributes so much to Australia's livelihood, lifestyle and quality of life.

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