Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia
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Mughal D.H.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Ijaz A.,Nur University | Yousaf M.S.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Wadood F.,Livestock Experiment Station | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2017

This study was designed to determine the effect of different osmotic pressures on spermatozoa characteristics of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen using tris egg yolk extender (TEYE). Semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 4) housed at a semen production unit was collected at weekly intervals for 10 weeks. Three solutions of tris-citric acid-fructose with osmotic pressures of 255, 275 and 295 mOsm/kg were used in extender preparation. Semen straws containing 20 × 106 spermatozoa were processed and stored at −196°C in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analyses of spermatozoa included motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, plasma membrane integrity, DNA integrity and lipid per-oxidation. Significantly higher (P < .05) sperm motility, acrosomal and DNA integrity were recorded at osmotic pressures of 275 and 295 mOsm/kg compared to 255 mOsm/kg. However, differences in spermatozoa viability, plasma membrane integrity and lipid per-oxidation were non-significant among three osmotic pressures. It is concluded that osmotic pressure of the solution used in extender preparation plays an important role in post-thaw quality of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Kamagaju L.,Free University of Colombia | Kamagaju L.,Institute Of Recherche Scientifique Et Technologique Irst | Bizuru E.,Nur University | Minani V.,Nur University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2013

Ethnopharmacological relevance Voluntary depigmentation, a very common practice in sub-Saharan Africa, often performed with pharmaceutical products diverted from their pharmacological use, may cause severe dermatological and systemic side effects. The present work aims at investigating whether and which herbs were used in Rwanda for similar purposes before the advent of the current depigmentation craze; this may give clues at herbal treatments possibly advantageous compared to current products. Material and methods Sixty-one traditional healers, mostly representatives of their associations, were surveyed by questionnaires for knowledge and practice of voluntary depigmentation. Recipes or plants used, plant parts, harvest area, preparation methods, dosage and route of administration were recorded. Most of the cited herbs were harvested with the help of traditional healers and identified by comparison with voucher specimens; herbal vouchers of the five most cited herbs were deposited in official herbaria. Results All surveyed traditional healers have knowledge of voluntary depigmentation; the population currently practicing do not recourse to their services but obtain bleaching products directly from the market. Traditional healers disclosed recipes prescribed or self-used (often by women) in their youth; others cited recipes are used to treat skin diseases with properties of "clarification", "black skin stain removal", in cases of hyperpigmentation, and/or "skin softening". Curiously, from the 28 recipes cited by traditional healers, all are mono-herbal preparations; most of the plants are mixed with butter for application to the skin. Conclusion Compared to other pathophysiological conditions, there is currently a very limited use of herbal preparations for depigmentation. Five herbs had a citation percentage equal or above to 50%, Brillantaisia cicatricosa Lindau (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ugandae (Aellen) Aellen (Chenopodiaceae), Dolichopentas longiflora Oliv. (Rubiaceae), Protea madiensis Oliv. (Proteaceae) and Sesamum angolense Welw. (Pedaliaceae); in vitro experiments indicated a modulation of melanogenesis by these plant extracts, confirming the information obtained from traditional healers. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kamagaju L.,Laboratoire Of Pharmacognosie | Kamagaju L.,Institute Of Recherche Scientifique Et Technologique Irst | Morandini R.,Free University of Colombia | Bizuru E.,Nur University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2013

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional herbal medicines provide an interesting, largely unexplored source for the development of potential new drugs and skin-care cosmetics. Some herbal extracts are known to be inhibitors of melanin formation, sometimes more potent than the classical inhibitors, hydroquinone/arbutin or kojic acid, and are not associated with melanocytes cytotoxicity or mutagenicity. Such plants are used in traditional medicine in many countries, particularly in Africa, for skin lightening. Aim of the study: To evaluate in vitro the ability of Rwandese medicinal plants, traditionally used for the treatment of skin (discoloration and attenuation of discolored spots), to modulate pigmentation and tyrosinase activity. Materials and methods: Based on an ethnopharmacological survey, five herbs [Brillantaisia cicatricosa Lindau (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ugandae (Aellen) Aellen (Chenopodiaceae), Dolichopentas longiflora Oliv. (Rubiaceae), Protea madiensis Oliv. (Proteaceae) and Sesamum angolense Welw. (Pedaliaceae)] were selected. Twenty-seven extracts, obtained by treating the herbs with increasing polarities solvents, were investigated for their effects on cell viability (MTT test) and on pigmentation: inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase (colorimetry of reaction products, measurement of enzyme activity, TLC-autography; studies on crude cellular extracts obtained from normal melanocytes and on a mushroom tyrosinase) and measurement of melanogenesis by human melanoma cells. Results: None of the tested plant extracts were cytotoxic on tested human melanoma cell lines, except for Dolichopentas longiflora (IC50 of leaves n-hexane extract, 4 μg/ml for MM028 and 4.5 μg/ml for MM001; IC50 of roots ethyl acetate extract, 0.8 μg/ml for MM028 and 3.9 μg/ml for MM001). Almost all extracts inhibited melanogenesis in a melanoma whole cells overall pigmentation assay, a model reflecting the entire cycle of melanogenesis. All the Protea madiensis extracts quite strongly inhibited melanogenesis and, surprisingly, one of the Dolichopentas longiflora leaves extracts was found to increase melanogenesis. These results were confirmed by the modulation of pigmentation reactions by crude cellular extracts obtained from normal melanocytes; interestingly, one of the extracts (Dolichopentas longiflora ethyl acetate extract) is even more active (61% at 500 μg/ml) than kojic acid (<3% at 142 μg/ml and 68% at 1421 μg/ml). In a mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assay, data obtained on some extracts fairly agree with pigmentation inhibition measured on melanocytes proteins as, for example, the methanol extract of Protea madiensis. While a few others extract display discording data, this probably reflects either differences between human and mushroom tyrosinase, interference with melanocytes enzymes at later steps than tyrosinase or the simultaneous presence of compounds with conflicting activities in a given extract. Conclusions: Ethnopharmacological data represent an efficient approach to discover active herbs. Some of the selected medicinal plants clearly show potent tyrosinase inhibitions while one extract significantly increases cell pigmentation; one extract contains potent growth melanocytes inhibitors. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Shagirbayev A.D.,Nur University | Tursynovich K.S.,Nur University | Shaikimovich A.A.,Nur University | Satershinov B.M.,Institute of Philosophy
European Journal of Science and Theology | Year: 2015

In order to reveal religious views of Mashkur Zhusup Kopeev we should revise his religious education and religious works and issues he considered, taking account historical time when he lived. It is necessary to identify significance, potential and necessity of Mashkur Zhusup‟s views, comparing novel religious movements from his time and religious situation in current time. It is important to use heritage of such prominent personality who had features of sanctity and the people revered him as a saint. In this article the necessity and significance of the analysis of Mashkur Zhusup Kopeev‟s world views have been revealed. © 2015, Ecozone, OAIMDD. All right reserved.

Gasingirwa M.-C.,University of Namur | Gasingirwa M.-C.,Nur University | Thirion J.,University of Namur | Mertens-Strijthagen J.,University of Namur | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2010

It has been suggested that intracellular Hyal-1 (hyaluronidase-1), which is considered a lysosomal enzyme, originates via endocytosis of the serum enzyme. To test this proposal we have investigated the uptake and intracellular distribution of rhHyal-1 (recombinant human Hyal-1) by mouse liver, making use of centrifugation methods. Experiments were performed on wild-type mice injected with 125I-labelled rhHyal-1 and on Hyal-1-/- mice injected with the unlabelled enzyme, which were killed at various times after injection. Activity of the unlabelled enzyme was determined by zymography. Intracellular distribution of Hyal-1 was investigated by differential and isopycnic centrifugation. The results of the study indicated that rhHyal-1 is endocytosed by the liver, mainly by sinusoidal cells, and follows the intracellular pathway described for many endocytosed proteins that are eventually located in lysosomes. However, Hyal-1 endocytosis has some particular features. First, endocytosed rhHyal-1 is quickly degraded. Secondly, its distribution, as analysed by differential centrifugation, differs from the distribution of β-galactosidase, taken as the reference lysosomal enzyme. Further analysis by isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose gradient shows endocytosed rhHyal-1 behaves like β-galactosidase shortly after injection. However the Hyal-1 distribution is markedly less affected than β-galactosidase, following a prior injection of Triton WR-1339, which is a specific density perturbant of lysosomes. The behaviour in centrifugation of endogenous liver Hyal-1, identified by hyaluronan zymography, exhibits some similarity with the behaviour of the endocytosed enzyme, suggesting that it could originate from endocytosis of the serum enzyme. Overall, these results can be explained by supposing that active endocytosed Hyal-1 is mainly present in early lysosomes. Although its degradation half-time is short, Hyal-1 could exert its activity due to a constant supply of active molecules from the blood. © The Authors.

Gharahi Ghehi N.,Ghent University | Werner C.,Biodiversity and Climate Research Center F | Cizungu Ntaboba L.,Ghent University | Mbonigaba Muhinda J.J.,Nur University | And 4 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2012

Globally, tropical forest soils represent the second largest source of N 2O and NO. However, there is still considerable uncertainty on the spatial variability and soil properties controlling N trace gas emission. Therefore, we carried out an incubation experiment with soils from 31 locations in the Nyungwe tropical mountain forest in southwestern Rwanda. All soils were incubated at three different moisture levels (50, 70 and 90 % water filled pore space (WFPS)) at 17 °C. Nitrous oxide emission varied between 4.5 and 400 μg N m -2 hg -1, while NO emission varied from 6.6 to 265μg N mg -2 h -1. Mean N2O emission at different moisture levels was 46.5 ± 11.1 (50 %WFPS), 71.7±11.5 (70 %WFPS) and 98.8±16.4 (90 %WFPS) μg N mg -2 h -1, while mean NO emission was 69.3±9.3 (50 %WFPS), 47.1±5.8 (70 %WFPS) and 36.1±4.2 (90 %WFPS) μg N m -2 h -1. The latter suggests that climate (i.e. dry vs. wet season) controls N 2O and NO emissions. Positive correlations with soil carbon and nitrogen indicate a biological control over N 2O and NO production. But interestingly N 2O and NO emissions also showed a positive correlation with free iron and a negative correlation with soil pH (only N 2O). The latter suggest that chemo-denitrification might, at least for N 2O, be an important production pathway. In conclusion improved understanding and process based modeling of N trace gas emission from tropical forests will benefit from spatially explicit trace gas emission estimates linked to basic soil property data and differentiating between biological and chemical pathways for N trace gas formation. © 2012 Author(s). CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Westinga E.,University of Twente | Mukashema A.,Nur University | Van Gils H.,University of Twente
Forestry | Year: 2013

Comparisons of national forest inventories have been undertaken at coarse resolutions in Europe, but not at fine resolutions and not in Africa. This study compares the consecutive (1990, 2000, 2005, 2010), census-based Food and Agriculture Organisation Forest Resources Assessments (FRAs) of Rwanda with contemporary fine-resolution, image-based inventories. Natural forest and forest plantation were extracted from 1985 to 1989 topographic maps, Africover 2002 and Centre of Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing (CGIS) 2007. The natural forest area estimates over the years obtained by image-based inventories are fairly constant from the earliest inventory (topo-1988; 140 000 ha), through Africover (135 500 ha) to CGIS (125 300 ha). FRA 2000 (46 000 ha), 2005 (61 000 ha) and 2010 (62 000 ha) estimates are lower, whereas FRA 1990 (164 000 ha) reported the largest extent of natural forest. The extent of forest plantations is at its lowest level in Africover (68 600 ha). However, CGIS (114 000 ha) detected a larger area of forest plantation, more similar to the levels reported in the FRA 1990 (125 000 ha) and topo-1988 (125 200 ha). The three recent FRAs (2000: 261 000 ha; 2005: 419 000 ha; 2010: 373 000 ha) report larger plantation extents. For the image-based inventories, we could estimate the uncertainty in each step of the inventory, while for the census-based cases, the required transparency is lacking. Uncertainty may be caused by definition of forest, forest versus forestland, image classification errors, image resolution, forest fragmentation or time-lags between imagery and reporting. In our pairwise comparison of the census and contemporary image-based inventories, all uncertainties are added. The FRA 2000 (307 000 ha) reports a larger total forest area than Africover (204 100 ha). The uncertainties of Africover add up to maximally 64 100 ha, which may explain part of the difference. The uncertainties in the CGIS inventory add up to nearly 15 000 ha and cannot explain the difference between FRA 2005 (480 000 ha) and GCGIS 2007 (239 300 ha).We conclude that FRAs starting in 2000 over-report the forest plantation area and under-estimate the extent of natural forest. Finally, we suggest technical and organizational improvements for national forest inventories. © Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2013. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Nur University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2016

Idiopathic Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare clinical condition recently identified as an autoimmune process related to Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) deposition. Herein we report a case of a 46 year old male presenting with 4 months history of backache, fever, flank pain and leg swelling for 2 weeks. Investigations revealed acute kidney injury diagnosed as a result of bilateral ureteric obstruction. This was later confirmed to be retroperitoneal fibrosis on CT scan and biopsy. Histopathology was consistent with IgG4 related disease. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents showed reduction in the fibrosis and normalization of the kidney functions. We discuss the IgG4 related retroperitoneal fibrosis in detail along with its varied presentations.

PubMed | Nur University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal for nurses in professional development | Year: 2015

After implementation of electronic modified early warning score to engage the rapid response team as a clinical decision support tool, we assessed the knowledge level about and usage of the tool by core staff. We identified a knowledge deficit, planned and implemented an educational intervention, and measured the outcome of the intervention. The outcome measurement indicated improved use of the clinical decision support tool by core staff and improved patient rescue strategies.

PubMed | University Putra Malaysia and Nur University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016

This study aims to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) G308A gene polymorphism on essential hypertension (EHT) with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The project was conducted on buccal epithelial and blood cells for case and control patients, respectively. Epithelial cells were obtained from the inner part of the cheeks. Techniques including DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were utilized to assess biomarkers of DNA damage. Our results demonstrated significant differences between wild and mutated genotypes among EHT patients without T2DM. We also found a significant association between wild and mutated allele frequencies in EHT patients (P < 0.05). Clinical characteristics between the groups (EHT with or without T2DM and controls) showed statistically significant association (P < 0.05). Overall, we show that G308A polymorphism of the TNF-gene may be a significant genetic risk factor for EHT without T2DM patients in Malaysia.

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