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Bellechasse Regional County Municipality, Canada

Gagne D.,Laval University | Blanchet R.,Laval University | Lauziere J.,Laval University | Vaissiere E.,Laval University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2012

Objectives. To describe traditional food (TF) consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n = 217). TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results. A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.09±.6 months (11-54 months). Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively). In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05) higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion. Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits. © 2012 Doris Gagné et al.

Lucas M.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | Proust F.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | Blanchet C.,National Institute of Quebec Public Health | Ferland A.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | And 5 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2010

Here we determined the relationship between red blood cell (RBC) omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and usual dietary marine food product intake among 630 Nunavik Inuit adults. Marine food product intake was determined by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and fatty acids were quantified in RBC membranes. Multiple linear regression was undertaken to determine the relationship between marine food product inatke and RBC n-3 LC-PUFAs (dependent variable). Mean RBC n-3 LC-PUFA level was 9.16±0.11% [SEM]. The highest correlations noted with RBC n-3 LC-PUFAs were for marine mammal fat (rs=0.41, P<0.0001) and fish (rs=0.35, P<0.0001). Age, total marine mammal fat and fish intakes were the variables that contributed the most to predicted RBC n-3 LC-PUFAs and explained 34%, 15% and 5%, respectively, of its variances. Our study indicates that marine mammal fat intake is more important than fish in accounting for RBC n-3 LC-PUFA levels among the Nunavik Inuit. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Chateau-Degat M.-L.,Laval University | Pereg D.,Laval University | Dallaire R.,Laval University | Ayotte P.,Laval University | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2010

Background: Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was used as a surfactant in various commercial products. In rodents, exposure to this compound induced various health effects, including hypolipidemia. In human populations, the potential toxicity of PFOS is not yet fully characterized, but indications of effects on lipids are reported. A recent study reported an increase in plasma cholesterol associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds in humans exposed through drinking water, but similar effects were not reported in all exposed human populations. PFOS is widely distributed in the environment, including the arctic biota. The Inuit of Nunavik are exposed to environmental contaminants through the consumption of fish and game. This diet is also a source of ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) that are known to lower plasma triacylglycerols. Objective: This cross-sectional epidemiologic study aims at assessing the relationship between PFOS exposure and plasma lipids, while taking account of the concomitant hypolipidemic effect exerted by n-3 PUFAs. Methods: Plasma concentrations of PFOS and lipids were assessed in Nunavik Inuit adults (n=723) in the framework of a large-scale environmental health study. Associations of exposure levels to age, gender and selected wild food consumption associated with n-3 PUFAs intake, as well as the exposure on lipid levels were investigated by multivariate linear modeling. Results: In the Inuit population, PFOS exposure and n-3 PUFAs intake are related to traditional food consumption. Triacylglycerol and ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were negatively associated with PFOS plasma levels, while HDL-C levels were positively associated, after adjustment for circulating levels of n-3 PUFAs and for the interaction between gender and PFOS plasma levels. Other plasma lipids, such as low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and non-HDL-C were not related to PFOS plasma concentrations. Conclusion: The results of this study show a relationship between PFOS and plasma lipid levels in an environmentally exposed human population, and this effect appears distinct from that of n-3 PUFAs. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Luo Z.-C.,University of Montreal | Wilkins R.,Health Information and Research Division | Wilkins R.,University of Ottawa | Heaman M.,University of Manitoba | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2012

Background: In circumpolar countries such as Canada, northern regions represent a unique geographical entity climatically, socioeconomically and environmentally. There is a lack of comparative data on birth outcomes among Indigenous and non-Indigenous subpopulations within northern regions and compared with southern regions. Methods: A cohort study of all births by maternal mother tongue to residents of northern (2616 First Nations (North American Indians), 2388 Inuit and 5006 non-Indigenous) and southern (2563 First Nations, 810 643 non-Indigenous) Quebec, 1991-2000. Results: Compared with births to southern non-Indigenous mother tongue women, births to northern women of all three mother tongue groups were at substantially elevated risks of infant death (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.7-2.9), especially postneonatal death (aOR 2.2-4.4) after controlling for maternal education, age, marital status and parity. The risk elevation in perinatal death was greater for southern First Nations (aOR 1.6) than for northern First Nations (aOR 1.2). Infant macrosomia was highly prevalent among First Nations in Quebec, especially in the north (31% vs 24% in the south). Within northern regions, Inuit births were at highest risk of preterm delivery (aOR 1.4) and infant death (aOR 1.6). Conclusion: All northern infants (First Nations, Inuit or non-Indigenous) were at substantially elevated risk of infant death in Quebec, despite a universal health insurance system. Southern First Nations newborns have not benefited from the more advanced perinatal care facilities in southern regions. Environmental influences may partly account for the very high prevalence of macrosomia among First Nations in northern Quebec.

Riva M.,Laval University | Plusquellec P.,University of Montreal | Juster R.-P.,University of Montreal | Juster R.-P.,McGill University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2014

Background: Household crowding is an important problem in some aboriginal communities that is reaching particularly high levels among the circumpolar Inuit. Living in overcrowded conditions may endanger health via stress pathophysiology. This study examines whether higher household crowding is associated with stressrelated physiological dysregulations among the Inuit. Methods: Cross-sectional data on 822 Inuit adults were taken from the 2004 Qanuippitaa? How are we? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey. Chronic stress was measured using the concept of allostatic load (AL) representing the multisystemic biological 'wear and tear' of chronic stress. A summary index of AL was constructed using 14 physiological indicators compiled into a traditional count-based index and a binary variable that contrasted people at risk on at least seven physiological indicators. Household crowding was measured using indicators of household size (total number of people and number of children per house) and overcrowding defined as more than one person per room. Data were analysed using weighted Generalised Estimating Equations controlling for participants' age, sex, income, diet and involvement in traditional activities. Results: Higher household crowding was significantly associated with elevated AL levels and with greater odds of being at risk on at least seven physiological indicators, especially among women and independently of individuals' characteristics. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that household crowding is a source of chronic stress among the Inuit of Nunavik. Differential housing conditions are shown to be a marker of health inequalities among this population. Housing conditions are a critical public health issue in many aboriginal communities that must be investigated further to inform healthy and sustainable housing strategies.

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