Qaisrani M.T.N.,NUML |
Naqvi S.M.R.,Loughborough University
European Transactions on Telecommunications | Year: 2011
This work investigates iterative architectures for coded transmission over multiple input multiple output channels in the presence of channel uncertainty. Robust receivers that are less sensitive to the uncertainty are designed. The nature of iterative algorithms is especially suited to iterative decoding and channel estimation (ID&CE), which is a widely accepted means of dealing with imperfections in channel state information. ID&CE re-estimates the channel in each iteration to deal with the uncertainty. The derived robust algorithm can be combined with ID&CE to yield significant performance gains as demonstrated by the simulation results. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Afridi F.K.,Abasyn University |
Baloch Q.B.,NUML |
Baloch V.Q.,Rehman Medical College
Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute | Year: 2016
Brain drain is the flow of skilled and qualified man power from a home country to host country leaving the former, socio-economically underdeveloped. The role of Pakistani medical diaspora in improving the health care system and socio-economic development of the country through brain circulation is discussed in this paper. Different secondary sources such as published research studies, government reports, newspapers and published interviews were consulted to gather information. The data collected was analyzed by using documentary and content analysis. Diaspora option can be used as a strategy to reverse and prevent the harmful effects of medical brain drain through brain gain and brain circulation. The government can play its vital role to facilitate the diaspora network between home and host countries. Diaspora networks should be mobilized to transfer knowledge, skills and ideas to their home country. However, diaspora networks are successful when home country is equipped with infrastructure, and with economic and political stability and strategic policies. © 2016, Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute. All Rights Reserved.
Rafique T.,Preston University |
Butt F.S.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology |
Khawaja A.B.,Preston University |
Akhtar N.,NUML |
And 2 more authors.
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014
Abstract: The job satisfaction of employees has been a focal point of private organizations and also a source of attention for researchers in recent times. May be, this is because of relations between organizational outcomes and job satisfaction matters. This study informs about relationships between biographical variables and job satisfaction of private organizations because job satisfaction of private organizations employees may be concerned with the personal attributes such as age, gender and years of experience. Objective of the study is the improvement of organizational Human Resource Management system regarding worker's job satisfaction, so Correlation, Regression and Analysis of Variance tests were conducted to test the data. Some of management variables, which were, Compensation, Empowerment, Work Place, Appraisal System, Management Behavior, Motivation, Clear Goals of Organization and Training and Development shown a positively correlation with employee's job satisfaction. Implications for these factors and their connection with job satisfaction is argued, limitations of the study and future research recommendations are presented. Data was collected through a questionnaire. To test the research hypothesis, Correlation was conducted. Biographical differences specially gender, age and experience were related to many job satisfaction variables. We explore the effects of organizational aspects on employee's satisfaction which leads to productivity. © 2014 Maxwell Scientific Organization.
Ghauri S.A.,NUML |
Qureshi I.M.,Air University |
Qureshi I.M.,Institute of Signals |
Malik A.N.,NUML |
And 3 more authors.
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013
In this study, we have presented that Higher Order Cummulants (HOC) based modulation recognition scheme for Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated signals having orders of 2 to 64. Modulation recognition is a process to recognize the signal modulation type which is received by the receiver in the presence of channel noise. The HOC based MR is accomplished in two modules. First is feature extraction using higher order cummulants. These features are distinct for different modulated signals. Second is recognition process which gives decision based upon the features extracted from higher order cummulants. The Probability of Correctness (POC) curves shows the recognition accuracy for sample size and number of iterations. The Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) is considered throughout the simulations. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013.
Hayat O.,NUML |
Qaisrani M.T.N.,NUML |
Proceedings - 2010 6th International Conference on Emerging Technologies, ICET 2010 | Year: 2010
The performance of maximum likelihood (ML) and sphere decoding (SD) are investigated when the channel is uncertain. In this work, a modified low complexity approach is proposed to deal with the effects of the channel uncertainty and obtain robust ML and SD. A higher complexity approach is also suggested but is not investigated here as it appears to be unsuitable for real time applications. The approach adopted involves linearly preprocessing the received signal to suppress the interference caused by channel uncertainty before applying a detector. Parallels of this approach may be found in the channel shortening literature where it is suggested to linearly preprocess the received signal with a channel shortener to reduce the effective delay spread of the intersymbol interference (ISI) channel before applying a reduced state Viterbi decoder to bring down the complexity of ML decoding. In our case, however, the preprocessing is applied to reduce the effect of the interference caused by channel uncertainty. © 2010 IEEE.