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Xue H.-L.,Lanzhou University | Xue H.-L.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Shen X.-S.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Shen X.-S.,Center for Numerical Prediction | Chou J.-F.,Lanzhou University
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2013

The initial value error and the imperfect numerical model are usually considered as error sources of numerical weather prediction (NWP). By using past multi-time observations and model output, this study proposes a method to estimate imperfect numerical model error. This method can be inversely estimated through expressing the model error as a Lagrange interpolation polynomial, while the coefficients of polynomial are determined by past model performance. However, for practical application in the full NWP model, it is necessary to determine the following criteria: (1) the length of past data sufficient for estimation of the model errors, (2) a proper method of estimating the term "model integration with the exact solution" when solving the inverse problem, and (3) the extent to which this scheme is sensitive to the observational errors. In this study, such issues are resolved using a simple linear model, and an advection-diffusion model is applied to discuss the sensitivity of the method to an artificial error source. The results indicate that the forecast errors can be largely reduced using the proposed method if the proper length of past data is chosen. To address the three problems, it is determined that (1) a few data limited by the order of the corrector can be used, (2) trapezoidal approximation can be employed to estimate the "term" in this study; however, a more accurate method should be explored for an operational NWP model, and (3) the correction is sensitive to observational error. © 2013 Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Xue H.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Xue H.,Lanzhou University | Shen X.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Shen X.,Center for Numerical Prediction | Chou J.,Lanzhou University
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2015

An online systematic error correction is presented and examined as a technique to improve the accuracy of real-time numerical weather prediction, based on the dataset of model errors (MEs) in past intervals. Given the analyses, the ME in each interval (6 h) between two analyses can be iteratively obtained by introducing an unknown tendency term into the prediction equation, shown in Part I of this two-paper series. In this part, after analyzing the 5-year (2001–2005) GRAPES-GFS (Global Forecast System of the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System) error patterns and evolution, a systematic model error correction is given based on the least-squares approach by firstly using the past MEs. To test the correction, we applied the approach in GRAPES-GFS for July 2009 and January 2010. The datasets associated with the initial condition and SST used in this study were based on NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) FNL (final) data. The results indicated that the Northern Hemispheric systematically underestimated equator-to-pole geopotential gradient and westerly wind of GRAPES-GFS were largely enhanced, and the biases of temperature and wind in the tropics were strongly reduced. Therefore, the correction results in a more skillful forecast with lower mean bias and root-mean-square error and higher anomaly correlation coefficient. © 2015, Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Xue H.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Xue H.,Lanzhou University | Shen X.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Shen X.,Center for Numerical Prediction | Chou J.,Lanzhou University
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2015

Errors inevitably exist in numerical weather prediction (NWP) due to imperfect numeric and physical parameterizations. To eliminate these errors, by considering NWP as an inverse problem, an unknown term in the prediction equations can be estimated inversely by using the past data, which are presumed to represent the imperfection of the NWP model (model error, denoted as ME). In this first paper of a two-part series, an iteration method for obtaining the MEs in past intervals is presented, and the results from testing its convergence in idealized experiments are reported. Moreover, two batches of iteration tests were applied in the global forecast system of the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System (GRAPES-GFS) for July–August 2009 and January–February 2010. The datasets associated with the initial conditions and sea surface temperature (SST) were both based on NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) FNL (final) data. The results showed that 6th h forecast errors were reduced to 10% of their original value after a 20-step iteration. Then, off-line forecast error corrections were estimated linearly based on the 2-month mean MEs and compared with forecast errors. The estimated error corrections agreed well with the forecast errors, but the linear growth rate of the estimation was steeper than the forecast error. The advantage of this iteration method is that the MEs can provide the foundation for online correction. A larger proportion of the forecast errors can be expected to be canceled out by properly introducing the model error correction into GRAPES-GFS. © 2015, Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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