Co. Kildare, Ireland
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Gilmartin M.,NUI Maynooth
Health and Place | Year: 2011

Drawing on detailed interviews with 60 recent migrants to Ireland, we discuss the extent and nature of patient mobility. The paper is framed by the typology of patient mobility outlined by Glinos et al. (2010), which highlights patient motivation and funding. We pay particular attention to four key areas: availability of health care for migrants living in Ireland; affordability of care as a push factor for patient mobility; how migrants' perceptions of care affect their decision about where to avail of care; and the impact of familiarity on patient mobility. We provide empirical support for this typology. However, our research also highlights the fact that two factors - availability and familiarity - require further elaboration. Our research demonstrates the need for greater levels of awareness of culture specificity on the part of both migrants and healthcare providers. It also highlights the need to investigate the social and spatial activities of migrants seeking health care, both within and beyond national boundaries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gowen A.A.,University College Dublin | Gowen A.A.,Kobe University | O'Sullivan C.,NUI Maynooth | O'Donnell C.P.,University College Dublin
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, spanning the range between 100 GHz and 30 THz, has recently enjoyed a renaissance due to technological developments in source and detector components. With the development of THz instrumentation, applications of THz spectroscopy and imaging for quality control of food products have expanded in scope and improved in performance. This article gives an overview of the fundamentals of THz technology and a comprehensive review of applications of THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging for food quality and control. Technical challenges and future outlook for these emerging techniques are also discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mooney P.A.,Icarus | Mulligan F.J.,NUI Maynooth | Fealy R.,Icarus
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2011

Surface air temperatures modelled by ERA-40, ERA-Interim and (NCEP)/(NCAR) reanalysis (NNRP-1) have been compared with observations at 11 synoptic stations in Ireland over the period 1989-2001. The three reanalysis datasets show good agreement with the observed data and with each other. Slopes of the least-squares line to scatter plots of reanalysis data versus observational data show small differences between the three reanalyses, with ERA-40, ERA-Interim and NNRP-1 slopes ranging between (0.79-1.06) ± 0.01, (0.83-1.01) ± 0.01 and (0.76-0.98) ± 0.01, respectively. Summary statistics and the monthly mean temperatures over the 1989-2001 period showed that the reanalyses were significantly warmer in winter than the observations, which resulted in best fit lines with slopes consistently less than unity. ERA-Interim was slightly better than both ERA-40 and NNRP-1 at modelling winter temperatures and it had higher correlation coefficients with the observations. All three reanalyses use different grid sizes and types. Subsequent regridding of the ERA-Interim and NNRP-1 data to the ERA-40 grid showed that the grid difference had no significant influence on the results. Comparison of ERA-Interim and NNRP-1 data with the air temperatures at four marine buoys around the Irish coast for the period 2001-2005 showed that the reanalyses modelled colder winter temperatures than the observations; resulting in best fit lines with slopes consistently greater than unity. The slopes for NNRP-1 and ERA-Interim at the marine buoys, respectively, averaged 1.09 ± 0.04 and 1.10 ± 0.05 while the slopes at the four land stations over the same period averaged 0.87 ± 0.02 and 0.89 ± 0.02, respectively. We believe that this pattern results from the difference in the treatment of land and sea surfaces in the reanalysis datasets. © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.

Singh I.,NUI Maynooth | Heaney F.,NUI Maynooth
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2010

A fast and practical metal free conjugation of ribonucleosides and 2′-OMe 4-mer oligoribonucleotides has been accomplished by a nitrile oxide alkyne click cycloaddition reaction on the solid-phase, the methodology is suited to modification at either, or both, the 3′- or the 5′-terminus of the oligoribonucleotide substrate. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

The aim of the work presented here was to establish the response of a corneal epithelial cell line (hTCEpi) to protein extracted from a bacterium (Bacillus oleronius) previously isolated from a Demodex mite from a rosacea patient. The response of the corneal epithelial cell line to Bacillus proteins was measured in terms of alterations in cell migration and invasiveness. Changes in the expression of metalloproteinase genes and proteins were also assessed. The results indicated increased cell migration (14.5-fold, P = 0.001) as measured using 8-μm PET inserts (BD Falcon) in a transwell assay and invasiveness (1.7-fold, P = 0.003) as measured using 8-μm Matrigel (BD Biocoat) invasion inserts in a 24-well plate assay format, following exposure to the Bacillus proteins. Cells exposed to the Bacillus protein showed a dose-dependent increase in expression of genes coding for matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3 (61-fold) and MPP-9 (301-fold). This dose-dependent increase in gene expression was also reflected in elevated levels of MMP-9 protein (1.34-fold, P = 0.033) and increased matrix metalloprotease activity (1.96-fold, P = 0.043) being present in the culture supernatant. Cells also displayed reduced levels of β-integrin (1.25-fold, P = 0.01), indicative of increased motility and elevated levels of vinculin (2.7-fold, P = 0.0009), suggesting altered motility. The results indicate that exposure of corneal epithelial cells to Bacillus proteins results in an aberrant wound healing response as visualized using a scratch wound assay. These results suggest a possible link between the high density of Demodex mites on the eyelashes of ocular rosacea patients and the development of corneal ulcers.

Pandey N.,NUI Maynooth | Hennelly B.,NUI Maynooth
3D Research | Year: 2011

Digital holographic microscopy is a quantitative phase measurement technique that can provide nanometer resolution of the thickness or surface profile of an object. We analyze the influence of additive noise in the hologram plane on the accuracy of phase measurement. We analyze Gaussian distributed and Poisson distributed shot noise in the camera plane and we develop a model for quantifying the phase error in the reconstructed phase. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2011 3D Display Research Center and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wang J.,NUI Maynooth | Healy R.,NUI Maynooth | Timoney J.,NUI Maynooth
Signal Processing | Year: 2011

This paper presents a blind audio watermarking algorithm based on the reduced singular value decomposition (RSVD). A new observation on one of the resulting unitary matrices is uncovered. The proposed scheme manipulates coefficients based on this observation in order to embed watermark bits. To preserve audio fidelity a threshold-based distortion control technique is applied and this is further supplemented by distortion suppression utilizing psychoacoustic principles. Test results on real music signals show that this watermarking scheme is in the range of imperceptibility for human hearing, is accurate and also robust against MP3 compression at various bit rates as well as other selected attacks. The data payload is comparatively high compared to existing audio watermarking schemes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Browne N.,NUI Maynooth | Heelan M.,NUI Maynooth | Kavanagh K.,NUI Maynooth
Virulence | Year: 2013

The insect immune response demonstrates a number of structural and functional similarities to the innate immune system of mammals. As a result of these conserved features insects have become popular choices for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens or for assessing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents and give results which are comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. Analysis of the cellular component of the insect and mammalian immune systems demonstrates many similarities. Insect hemocytes recognize pathogens and phagocytose material in a similar manner to neutrophils. The killing of ingested microbes is achieved in both cell types by the production of superoxide and by the release of enzymes in the process of degranulation. Insect hemocytes and mammalian neutrophils are sensitive to the same inhibitors. This review highlights the strong similarities between the phagocytic cells of both groups of animals and demonstrates the potential benefits of using selected insects as in vivo screening systems. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Browne N.,NUI Maynooth | Surlis C.,NUI Maynooth | Kavanagh K.,NUI Maynooth
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2014

Exposure of larvae of Galleria mellonella larvae to mild physical (i.e. shaking) or thermal stress for 24. h increased their ability to survive infection with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia however larvae stressed in a similar manner but incubated for 72. h prior to infection showed no elevation in their resistance to infection with A. fumigatus. Stressed larvae demonstrated an elevated haemocyte density 24. h after initiation of the stress event but this declined at 48 and 72. h. Larval proteins such as apolipophorin, arylophorin and prophenoloxidase demonstrated elevated expression at 24. h but not at 72. h. Larvae maintained at 37. °C showed increased expression of a range of antimicrobial and immune-related proteins at 24. h but these decreased in expression thereafter. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae are capable of altering their immune response following exposure to mild thermal or physical stress to mount a response capable of counteracting microbial infection which reaches a peak 24. h after the initiation of the priming event and then declines by 72. h. A short-term immune priming effect may serve to prevent infection but maintaining an immune priming effect for longer periods may be metabolically costly and unnecessary while living within the colony of another insect. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Moser P.,NUI Maynooth
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

This paper proposes new notions of polynomial depth (called monotone poly depth), based on a polynomial version of monotone Kolmogorov complexity. We show that monotone poly depth satisfies all desirable properties of depth notions i.e., both trivial and random sequences are not monotone poly deep, monotone poly depth satisfies the slow growth law i.e., no simple process can transform a non deep sequence into a deep one, and monotone poly deep sequences exist (unconditionally). We give two natural examples of deep sets, by showing that both the set of Levin-random strings and the set of Kolmogorov random strings are monotone poly deep. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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