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Maynooth, Ireland

Mooney P.A.,Icarus | Mulligan F.J.,NUI Maynooth | Fealy R.,Icarus
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2011

Surface air temperatures modelled by ERA-40, ERA-Interim and (NCEP)/(NCAR) reanalysis (NNRP-1) have been compared with observations at 11 synoptic stations in Ireland over the period 1989-2001. The three reanalysis datasets show good agreement with the observed data and with each other. Slopes of the least-squares line to scatter plots of reanalysis data versus observational data show small differences between the three reanalyses, with ERA-40, ERA-Interim and NNRP-1 slopes ranging between (0.79-1.06) ± 0.01, (0.83-1.01) ± 0.01 and (0.76-0.98) ± 0.01, respectively. Summary statistics and the monthly mean temperatures over the 1989-2001 period showed that the reanalyses were significantly warmer in winter than the observations, which resulted in best fit lines with slopes consistently less than unity. ERA-Interim was slightly better than both ERA-40 and NNRP-1 at modelling winter temperatures and it had higher correlation coefficients with the observations. All three reanalyses use different grid sizes and types. Subsequent regridding of the ERA-Interim and NNRP-1 data to the ERA-40 grid showed that the grid difference had no significant influence on the results. Comparison of ERA-Interim and NNRP-1 data with the air temperatures at four marine buoys around the Irish coast for the period 2001-2005 showed that the reanalyses modelled colder winter temperatures than the observations; resulting in best fit lines with slopes consistently greater than unity. The slopes for NNRP-1 and ERA-Interim at the marine buoys, respectively, averaged 1.09 ± 0.04 and 1.10 ± 0.05 while the slopes at the four land stations over the same period averaged 0.87 ± 0.02 and 0.89 ± 0.02, respectively. We believe that this pattern results from the difference in the treatment of land and sea surfaces in the reanalysis datasets. © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

The aim of the work presented here was to establish the response of a corneal epithelial cell line (hTCEpi) to protein extracted from a bacterium (Bacillus oleronius) previously isolated from a Demodex mite from a rosacea patient. The response of the corneal epithelial cell line to Bacillus proteins was measured in terms of alterations in cell migration and invasiveness. Changes in the expression of metalloproteinase genes and proteins were also assessed. The results indicated increased cell migration (14.5-fold, P = 0.001) as measured using 8-μm PET inserts (BD Falcon) in a transwell assay and invasiveness (1.7-fold, P = 0.003) as measured using 8-μm Matrigel (BD Biocoat) invasion inserts in a 24-well plate assay format, following exposure to the Bacillus proteins. Cells exposed to the Bacillus protein showed a dose-dependent increase in expression of genes coding for matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3 (61-fold) and MPP-9 (301-fold). This dose-dependent increase in gene expression was also reflected in elevated levels of MMP-9 protein (1.34-fold, P = 0.033) and increased matrix metalloprotease activity (1.96-fold, P = 0.043) being present in the culture supernatant. Cells also displayed reduced levels of β-integrin (1.25-fold, P = 0.01), indicative of increased motility and elevated levels of vinculin (2.7-fold, P = 0.0009), suggesting altered motility. The results indicate that exposure of corneal epithelial cells to Bacillus proteins results in an aberrant wound healing response as visualized using a scratch wound assay. These results suggest a possible link between the high density of Demodex mites on the eyelashes of ocular rosacea patients and the development of corneal ulcers. Source

Ghesquiere A.,NUI Maynooth | Dorlas T.,Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2013

The effect of a thermal reservoir is investigated on a bipartite Gaussian state. We derive a pre-Lindblad master equation in the non-rotating wave approximation for the system. We then solve the master equation for a bipartite harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian with entangled initial state. We show that for strong damping the loss of entanglement is the same as for freely evolving particles. However, if the damping is small, the entanglement is shown to oscillate and eventually tend to a constant non-zero value. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Gowen A.A.,University College Dublin | Gowen A.A.,Kobe University | O'Sullivan C.,NUI Maynooth | O'Donnell C.P.,University College Dublin
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, spanning the range between 100 GHz and 30 THz, has recently enjoyed a renaissance due to technological developments in source and detector components. With the development of THz instrumentation, applications of THz spectroscopy and imaging for quality control of food products have expanded in scope and improved in performance. This article gives an overview of the fundamentals of THz technology and a comprehensive review of applications of THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging for food quality and control. Technical challenges and future outlook for these emerging techniques are also discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gilmartin M.,NUI Maynooth
Health and Place | Year: 2011

Drawing on detailed interviews with 60 recent migrants to Ireland, we discuss the extent and nature of patient mobility. The paper is framed by the typology of patient mobility outlined by Glinos et al. (2010), which highlights patient motivation and funding. We pay particular attention to four key areas: availability of health care for migrants living in Ireland; affordability of care as a push factor for patient mobility; how migrants' perceptions of care affect their decision about where to avail of care; and the impact of familiarity on patient mobility. We provide empirical support for this typology. However, our research also highlights the fact that two factors - availability and familiarity - require further elaboration. Our research demonstrates the need for greater levels of awareness of culture specificity on the part of both migrants and healthcare providers. It also highlights the need to investigate the social and spatial activities of migrants seeking health care, both within and beyond national boundaries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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