PubMed | Nucleo de Pos Graduacao e Pesquisa NPGP
Type: | Journal: Recent patents on endocrine, metabolic & immune drug discovery | Year: 2016
Inflammation is an innate immune response which is considered a common basis for several diseases such as ageing, diabetes, obesity, gout, neurodegenerative diseases and others. Among other platforms, inflammasomes are part of a superfamily of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRR) and act as cytoplasmatic sensors for stimulation with Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMPs) and/or Danger/Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) leading to an infectious/pathogenic or sterile inflammation. Inflammasomes constitute a complex platform with high molecular weight and functionality, divided into two families: NOD-like or NLR and PYHIN (pyrin and HIN200 - hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear antigens). After activation by PAMPs or DAMPs, NLRP3 inflammasome promotes conversion of pro-caspase 1 in caspase-1 to form the active complex which is able to cleave pro-IL-1 and pro-IL-18 in respective active inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-18 inducing cellular death by pyroptosis. Diabetes has a very intricate pathology with metabolic adaptation and inflammatory components apparently responsible for diabetic complications.The present review evaluates the role of inflammasome, emphasizing NRLP3 on diabetes. An overview on several inflammatory diseases in which inflammasomes appear to play a role is included. Patents on inflammasomes associated with diabetes are evaluated and discussed.There are a significant number of patents on inflammation but few of them are specifically on inflammasome and diabetes. The patents WO 2015003246 A1; US 20130273588 A1; WO 2012016145 A2; and CN104258398 are shown and their mechanisms are discussed. In conclusion, extensive studies on inflammasome mechanisms will be required in order to design new therapeutic targets to control inflammation in diabetes .