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Arain M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Sial M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Arif Rajput M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Mirbahar A.A.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Stability for grain yield performance and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction was studied in twelve (nine advance genotypes and 3 checks) wheat genotypes evaluated at various locations having different agro-climatic conditions in Sindh province of Pakistan over two years. The combined and individual analysis of variance for locations and years was conducted. Pooled analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p≤0.01) difference for genotypes, environments and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. A joint regression analysis was applied to grain yield data to estimate the stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), s.e. (b) and deviation from regression coefficients (S 2d) for each genotype. Genotype MSH-14 produced the highest mean yield (5090 kg/ha) in all environments averaged for two years, and had regression coefficient (b) close to unity (0.86) and S2d close to zero (0.7923). This indicated wide adaptation and stability of performance of MSH-14 in all environments. Other high yielding genotypes MSH-03 and MSH-05 ranked 2nd and 3rd showing regression coefficient (b=0.78 and 0.69 respectively) and deviation from regression (S 2d= 1.076 and 1.29 respectively) indicating specific adaptability of these genotypes to harsh (un favorable) environments. These findings suggested that both the genotypes could be used as stress tolerant genotypes under stressed environments (such as drought, heat and salinity stress).

He Y.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Hou P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Fan G.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Arain S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Peng C.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2014

The medicinal plants from the genus Coptis were widely applied in clinical treatment, but no stable and systemic methods have been established for species identification and quality evaluation. Although several analytical methods have been reported for the detection of alkaloids, so far no attempt has been made to analyze the interspecific relationships between molecular phylogeny and main alkaloids in Coptis. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Coptis from China are resolved with high support. Coptis chinensis, Coptis deltoidea and Coptis omeiensis cluster together, and this clade ('clade III') is sister to Coptis teeta. Here, we provide evidences that the relationships inferred by chemical taxonomy are different to those of the present molecular phylogeny. Within clade III, C. deltoidea, C. omeiensis and C. chinensis are sister to C. teeta, while C. teeta shares more similar metabolic compounds with C. deltoidea, and C. omeiensis than with C. chinensis. Most likely, the metabolic components are mainly affected by environmental factors resulting in convergent evolution of alkaloid contents that do not reflect phylogenetic relationships. © 2014.

He Y.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Hou P.,Sichuan University | Fan G.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Song Z.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2012

Angelica anomala Avé-Lall (Chuanbaizhi in Chinese) is an important medicinal plant which can be used in traditional Chinese medicines; however, there are no authentic and universal methods to differentiate this Sichuan famous-region drug of A. anomala from a large number of non-famous-region and false drugs. It has been demonstrated that DNA barcoding is a molecular diagnostic method for species identification, which uses a single standardized DNA fragment. In this study, we tested five DNA barcoding candidates (matK, ITS, ITS2, rbcL, and psbA-trnH), and we found that ITS was the best candidate to authenticate the famous-region drug of A. anomala. Moreover, through comparative analysis of these five DNA barcodes between A. anomala and Angelica dahurica, we found that ITS had the most and ITS2 had more variable regions, but the psbA-trnH, rbcL, and matK regions were identical. Hence, we suggest ITS as the DNA barcoding to identify A. anomala and A. dahurica. Moreover, we are determined to adopt the A. anomala as the accurate Latin name of Chuanbaizhi. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Suleman N.,University of Leeds | Suleman N.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Raja S.,University of Leeds | Raja S.,The Institute of Plant and Environmental Protection | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Entomology | Year: 2011

1. Figs on male dioecious fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae) are breeding sites for pollinator fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae), but figs on female plants are traps that produce only seeds. As the short-lived fig wasps cannot reproduce in female figs, natural selection should favour individuals that avoid them. Several studies have failed to detect such discrimination, a result attributed to inter-sexual mimicry and 'selection to rush' in the wasps, but their experiments failed to explicitly take into account fig age (how long they had been waiting to be pollinated). 2. We compared the relative attraction of male and female figs of known ages of the South East Asian Ficus montana Burm. f. to its pollina tor Liporrhopalum tentacularis Grandi and examined how the reproductive success of the plant and its pollinator change with the age of the figs. 3. Mean retention time for un-pollinated figs on female plants was 16 days whereas in male figs it was 12 days. Female figs remained attractive for up to 2 weeks, although the wasps were less willing to enter older figs. After pollinator entry, receptivity continued for several days, lasting longer in figs entered by a single wasp. Consistent with abortion rates, attractiveness persisted longer in female figs. Older figs produced fewer fig wasp offspring, but similar numbers of seeds. 4. The sexual differences in floral longevity in F. montana may represent part of a previously un-recognised reproductive strategy in some fig trees that allows male plants to 'export' pollinators while also maintaining a resident fig wasp population. © 2011 The Authors. Ecological Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

Shereen A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Shirazi M.U.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Khan M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Mumtaz S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

Studies were conducted to evaluate upland (UR) and lowland (LR) types of rice for their salt tolerance potential at early seedling stage under controlled laboratory conditions. The treatment of salinity (100 mM NaCl) along with non saline control was imposed for the period of two weeks. Shoot and root growth of all genotypes reduced with varying intensity under salinity. All UR types were more sensitive except UR-74 and UR-60 and exhibited comparatively less reduction in growth. These studies have revealed significant differential responses of UR and LR at physiological level. LR types of rice were remarkably different from UR types in their shoot sodium concentrations. LR types have exhibited comparatively low concentration of sodium and also found distinctly different in their proline production. Tolerant LR types have exhibited less relative increase in Na and better K: Na ratio in their shoot. Significant positive correlation (r = 0.93) was observed between sodium and proline concentrations in shoot. While, significant negative correlation (r = - 0.84) was observed between sodium and potassium sodium ratios in shoot. Tolerant varieties of both types of rice exhibited more sucrose and total soluble sugars under salinity stress indicating its protective role. These findings suggest that LR types of rice have better capability for selective uptake and osmotic adjustment in comparison to UR types under salinity stress. © 2015, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Sial M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Arain M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Laghari K.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Khanzada S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

A new wheat variety NIA-Amber developed by NIA Tando Jam has been released by the Government of Sindh in the year 2010. NIA-Amber possesses semi-dwarf stature with high tillering capacity endowed with high grain yield, early maturity, better grain quality and resistance to lodging. It possesses the highest protein content (16.02%), highest wet gluten (37.1%), high dry gluten (12.0%), and high SDS value (28.5). It confirmed its superiority in grain yield in series of trials such as preliminary yield trials (PYT), advanced strains yield trials (AST), comparative yield trials, micro yield trials, zonal trials and national trials. It showed stability and wide adaptation over different environments in province of Sindh. It performed well under normal and late conditions. It showed increase in yield with addition of zinc in combination with other fertilizers NPK. The variety showed resistance against leaf rust and tolerance to yellow rust diseases. In NUWYT, it produced higher grain yield and ranked first in Sindh under late sowing conditions; whereas, it acquired 6th position in NUWYT under normal sowings. The variety has the potential yield of 6406 kg/ha. Its release will make a significant contribution to genetic diversity and enhance the stability of yield, which will ultimately improve the socio-economic conditions of the farmers of the province of Sindh.

Yasin Ashraf M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Yaqub M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Akhtar J.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Athar Khan M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Fruit yield and quality of citrus, especially KINNOW (Citrus deliciosa x Citrus nobilis) in Pakistan is not competitive with that of other countries which could be attributed mainly to the lack of appropriate nutrient management for citrus orchards. The yield losses in citrus occur mainly due to excessive fruit drop. Experiments to overcome these problems were conducted at four different sites one each in Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh, Jhang and Sargodha districts of Punjab, Pakistan. The soil and leaf chemical analysis showed severe deficiency of Zn in Kinnow. In the present studies, effect of foliar application of Zn, K and salicylic acid (SA) alone or in combination was investigated on fruit yield, excessive fruit drop and juice quality. The fruit trees were pretreated with a selected NPK level. Zinc (0.25% ZnSO4 solution), K (0.25% K2SO4 solution) and salicylic acid (10 μM) were sprayed at three different stages, i.e. the onset of spring/flush of leaves or flowers, fruit formation and color initiation on fruit. Overall, application of Zn, K and SA or Zn+K+SA was effective in improving the yield and quality parameters of citrus fruit at all sites. Although fruit drop was reduced by the foliar spray of Zn, K, SA or Zn+K but three foliar sprays of 10μM SA + 0.25% each of Zn and K reduced the citrus fruit drop by 30% and also improved the juice quality. Kinnow fruit yield and juice quality can be effectively enhanced with proper nutrient and hormone applications depending on site conditions.

Sial M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Akhter J.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Mirbahar A.A.,University of Karachi | Jamali K.D.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Studies on heritability estimates were carried out in 30 F2 segregating population originated through cross combinations of six different parental lines/varieties of bread wheat. Genetic parameters such as environmental variance (Ve), genetic variance (Vg), heritability percentage in broad sense (h2 b.s.) and genetic advance (G.A) were calculated for two important yield contributing traits viz., number of grains per spike and grain yield per spike. The highest mean number of grains per spike (80-100.8) and main spike yield (4.0 to 4.58 g) were recorded in 23 progenies. Eighteen progenies showed the highest heritability (81.2 to 94.3%) in broad sense (h2) coupled with higher genetic advance (1.69-30.58%) for number of grains per spike; indicating more effective selection which could be possible from segregating progenies for this particular trait. Twenty six progenies showed the highest heritability (59.4 to 97.1%) for main spike grain yield character. The results depicted that most of the segregating progenies showed genetic improvement in both quantitative traits in terms of more heritability (h2 b.s.) and genetic advance. Identification of superior plants possesses desirable traits with high heritability estimates provide basic understanding of breeding material in early segregating generations. The better progenies could be effectively used to select the superior hybrid plants with desirable genes in successive generations.

Salahuddin S.,Agriculture Research Institute | Abro S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Rehman A.,International Center for Chemical and Biological science | Iqbal K.,Agriculture Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Correlation and regression studies of cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum L., were analysed for quantitative characters. Results revealed that highly significant positive correlation (r=0.567) was displayed by sympodial branches with seed cotton yield, which showed that seed cotton yield was greatly influenced by sympodial branches. The coefficient of determination (r2=0.321) revealed 32.1% variation in the seed cotton yield per plant, due to its relationship with sympodial branches per plant. Regression coefficient (b=5.66) showed that a unit increase in sympodial branches per plant resulted into a proportional increase of 5.66 gms in seed cotton yield per plant, whereas bolls per plant exhibited strong positive association with seed cotton yield (r=0.959). The coefficient of determination (r2=0.92) revealed 92% of the total variation in seed cotton yield attributable to the variation in number of bolls per plant. The regression coefficient (b=3.37) indicated that for a unit increase in bolls per plant, there would be a proportional increase of 3.37 gms in seed cotton yield per plant. Boll weight displayed a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.597) with seed cotton yield per plant. The coefficient of determination (r2=0.356) determined that boll weight was responsible for 35.6% variation in seed cotton yield per plant. The regression coefficient (b=53.479) indicated that a unit increase in boll weight resulted into corresponding increase of 53.48 gms in seed cotton yield per plant. However, the plant height and monopodial branches per plant showed non significant association with the yield per plant.

Kjellberg F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Suleman N.,University of Leeds | Suleman N.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Raja S.,University of Leeds | And 4 more authors.
Acta Oecologica | Year: 2014

The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.The ratios of number of male flowers on number of female flowers in a glasshouse-maintained F.montana population were highly variable. When fig wasps were introduced into receptive female figs, the resulting seed numbers were strongly linked to the numbers of pollinators that had been seeking access to pollen, relative to the number of anthers in their natal figs. In F.carica estimates of the amounts of pollen produced per fig and the quantities of pollen carried by emerging fig wasps suggest that less than 10% of the pollen is transported. Pollinators of F. carica that emerged earlier from figs carried more pollen, and also generated more seeds when introduced into receptive female figs.We show here that all pollinators are not equally valuable and producing more pollinators is not necessarily a good option in terms of Ficus male fitness. Previous results on F.montana figs showed that only around half of the flowers where pollinators lay eggs produced adult offspring. The amount of pollen collected by young female fig wasps may be a major determinant of their reproductive success. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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