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Suleman N.,University of Leeds | Suleman N.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Raja S.,University of Leeds | Raja S.,The Institute of Plant and Environmental Protection | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Entomology | Year: 2011

1. Figs on male dioecious fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae) are breeding sites for pollinator fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae), but figs on female plants are traps that produce only seeds. As the short-lived fig wasps cannot reproduce in female figs, natural selection should favour individuals that avoid them. Several studies have failed to detect such discrimination, a result attributed to inter-sexual mimicry and 'selection to rush' in the wasps, but their experiments failed to explicitly take into account fig age (how long they had been waiting to be pollinated). 2. We compared the relative attraction of male and female figs of known ages of the South East Asian Ficus montana Burm. f. to its pollina tor Liporrhopalum tentacularis Grandi and examined how the reproductive success of the plant and its pollinator change with the age of the figs. 3. Mean retention time for un-pollinated figs on female plants was 16 days whereas in male figs it was 12 days. Female figs remained attractive for up to 2 weeks, although the wasps were less willing to enter older figs. After pollinator entry, receptivity continued for several days, lasting longer in figs entered by a single wasp. Consistent with abortion rates, attractiveness persisted longer in female figs. Older figs produced fewer fig wasp offspring, but similar numbers of seeds. 4. The sexual differences in floral longevity in F. montana may represent part of a previously un-recognised reproductive strategy in some fig trees that allows male plants to 'export' pollinators while also maintaining a resident fig wasp population. © 2011 The Authors. Ecological Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

He Y.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Hou P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Fan G.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Arain S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Peng C.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2014

The medicinal plants from the genus Coptis were widely applied in clinical treatment, but no stable and systemic methods have been established for species identification and quality evaluation. Although several analytical methods have been reported for the detection of alkaloids, so far no attempt has been made to analyze the interspecific relationships between molecular phylogeny and main alkaloids in Coptis. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Coptis from China are resolved with high support. Coptis chinensis, Coptis deltoidea and Coptis omeiensis cluster together, and this clade ('clade III') is sister to Coptis teeta. Here, we provide evidences that the relationships inferred by chemical taxonomy are different to those of the present molecular phylogeny. Within clade III, C. deltoidea, C. omeiensis and C. chinensis are sister to C. teeta, while C. teeta shares more similar metabolic compounds with C. deltoidea, and C. omeiensis than with C. chinensis. Most likely, the metabolic components are mainly affected by environmental factors resulting in convergent evolution of alkaloid contents that do not reflect phylogenetic relationships. © 2014.

Salahuddin S.,Agriculture Research Institute | Abro S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Rehman A.,International Center for Chemical and Biological science | Iqbal K.,Agriculture Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Correlation and regression studies of cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum L., were analysed for quantitative characters. Results revealed that highly significant positive correlation (r=0.567) was displayed by sympodial branches with seed cotton yield, which showed that seed cotton yield was greatly influenced by sympodial branches. The coefficient of determination (r2=0.321) revealed 32.1% variation in the seed cotton yield per plant, due to its relationship with sympodial branches per plant. Regression coefficient (b=5.66) showed that a unit increase in sympodial branches per plant resulted into a proportional increase of 5.66 gms in seed cotton yield per plant, whereas bolls per plant exhibited strong positive association with seed cotton yield (r=0.959). The coefficient of determination (r2=0.92) revealed 92% of the total variation in seed cotton yield attributable to the variation in number of bolls per plant. The regression coefficient (b=3.37) indicated that for a unit increase in bolls per plant, there would be a proportional increase of 3.37 gms in seed cotton yield per plant. Boll weight displayed a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.597) with seed cotton yield per plant. The coefficient of determination (r2=0.356) determined that boll weight was responsible for 35.6% variation in seed cotton yield per plant. The regression coefficient (b=53.479) indicated that a unit increase in boll weight resulted into corresponding increase of 53.48 gms in seed cotton yield per plant. However, the plant height and monopodial branches per plant showed non significant association with the yield per plant.

Sial M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Akhter J.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Mirbahar A.A.,University of Karachi | Jamali K.D.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Studies on heritability estimates were carried out in 30 F2 segregating population originated through cross combinations of six different parental lines/varieties of bread wheat. Genetic parameters such as environmental variance (Ve), genetic variance (Vg), heritability percentage in broad sense (h2 b.s.) and genetic advance (G.A) were calculated for two important yield contributing traits viz., number of grains per spike and grain yield per spike. The highest mean number of grains per spike (80-100.8) and main spike yield (4.0 to 4.58 g) were recorded in 23 progenies. Eighteen progenies showed the highest heritability (81.2 to 94.3%) in broad sense (h2) coupled with higher genetic advance (1.69-30.58%) for number of grains per spike; indicating more effective selection which could be possible from segregating progenies for this particular trait. Twenty six progenies showed the highest heritability (59.4 to 97.1%) for main spike grain yield character. The results depicted that most of the segregating progenies showed genetic improvement in both quantitative traits in terms of more heritability (h2 b.s.) and genetic advance. Identification of superior plants possesses desirable traits with high heritability estimates provide basic understanding of breeding material in early segregating generations. The better progenies could be effectively used to select the superior hybrid plants with desirable genes in successive generations.

He Y.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Hou P.,Sichuan University | Fan G.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Song Z.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2012

Angelica anomala Avé-Lall (Chuanbaizhi in Chinese) is an important medicinal plant which can be used in traditional Chinese medicines; however, there are no authentic and universal methods to differentiate this Sichuan famous-region drug of A. anomala from a large number of non-famous-region and false drugs. It has been demonstrated that DNA barcoding is a molecular diagnostic method for species identification, which uses a single standardized DNA fragment. In this study, we tested five DNA barcoding candidates (matK, ITS, ITS2, rbcL, and psbA-trnH), and we found that ITS was the best candidate to authenticate the famous-region drug of A. anomala. Moreover, through comparative analysis of these five DNA barcodes between A. anomala and Angelica dahurica, we found that ITS had the most and ITS2 had more variable regions, but the psbA-trnH, rbcL, and matK regions were identical. Hence, we suggest ITS as the DNA barcoding to identify A. anomala and A. dahurica. Moreover, we are determined to adopt the A. anomala as the accurate Latin name of Chuanbaizhi. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

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