Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA

Tando Jām, Pakistan

Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA

Tando Jām, Pakistan
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Abro Z.-U.-A.,University of Sindh | Baloch N.,University of Sindh | Khuhro N.H.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Akbar W.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA
Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences | Year: 2017

Melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is an injurious pest of vegetables and fruits throughout the cosmos. Vegetables are key source of proteins, minerals and vitamins for human nutrition. However, a number of factors, such as Tephritid flies, confine production of vegetables. Among them, B. cucurbitae is most deleterious pests of the vegetables. In the present investigation, conducted at two field locations of district, Hyderabad during 2016, efficacy of various bait sprays was evaluated in controlling Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) infestation. The field locations were Jeay Shah and Dehli farm and the cucurbit vegetable crops were bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). For this purpose, three food attractants such as Nu-lure, Protein hydrolysate and Prima were sprayed on one meter square per field area, as spot treatment. Significantly higher reductions in B. cucurbitae infestations (24.80±2.63, 21.20±2.75) were recorded with Protein hydrolysate followed by Nu-lure (27.80±3.26, 24.20±3.57), as compared with untreated plots, at both field locations (P<0.05). Moreover, higher number of pupae were recovered (121.40±13.81, 115.00±14.17) and higher number of flies and trap catches were observed in control (P<0.05). This study established that Protein hydrolysate is an effective food attractant for reducing B. cucurbitae in all the tested cucurbits. Results of the present investigation would be useful in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the cucurbit agro-ecosystem. © Pakistan Academy of Sciences.

Seema N.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Khan M.T.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Khan I.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Yasmeen S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2017

Sugarcane varietal development program in Pakistan primarily depends on evaluation of imported genotypes because of the unfavorable climatic conditions for sugarcane flowering and hybridization in the country. Performance of 41 exotic sugarcane clones was assessed in this study on the basis of seven quantitative (plant height, number of tillers, internode length, number of internode, cane girth, cane yield, and weight per stool) and six qualitative (sucrose %, brix %, CCS %, fiber %, sugar recovery % and sugar yield) attributes. Sugarcane clones comprised of fifteen genotypes from Canal Point (USA), eight from Homma (USA), and eighteen from Brazil. The clones exhibited statistically significant differences for tillers per plant, weight per stool, plant height, cane yield, brix%, sucrose%, fiber%, sugar recovery and sugar yield. Highest cane yield of 51.66 t/ha was observed for Canal Point clone CPNIA-240 while the lowest yield of 26.66 t/ha was recorded in Homma clone HoNIA-795. The highest sugar recovery (10.83 & 10.81) was exhibited by the clones SPNIA-396 and SPNIA-8 whereas the lowest (4.00) was observed in clone SPNIA-05. Moreover, maximum sugar yield was recorded in clone SPNIA-8 (5.37 tha-1) and minimum was observed in clone SPNIA-05 (0.91). Ward’s linkage cluster analysis of the exotic clones placed the genotypes into six major groups in dendrogram. Genotypes appeared in the clusters irrespective of their geographical location. Cluster II, IV and V showed excellent qualitative, combination of quantitative and qualitative, and quantitative characters respectively. Clones from different clusters demonstrate genetic variations and thus can be subjected to selection and hybridization for further improvement. The accessions demonstrating excellent cane and sugar yield can serve as potential candidates for varietal development program in Pakistan. © 2017, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Faisal S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Mujtaba S.M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Khan M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Mahboob W.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2017

As water deficit is the major constrained for agriculture crop production, germination potentials of twenty six wheat genotypes were assessed under various drought stress levels while six genotypes were evaluated for drought tolerance potential through growth and physiological studies at early seedling stage. The experimental layout was comprised of three drought treatments in completely randomized pattern with three replicates under controlled conditions. Drought stress was induced through polyethylene glycol-6000 solutions by maintaining three osmotic potentials (-0.5MPa, -0.75MPa and -1.0MPa) in water culture medium while 1/4th Hoagland’s solution with zero osmotic potential was applied as control. Germination rate, seedling’s growth and photosynthesis were declined with increased levels of water deficiency. Seedling length, fresh and dry biomasses of root and shoot, and photosynthetic pigments executed more reduction at higher water deficit conditions. However, genotype TD-1 followed by ESW-9525 and IBWSN-1010 showed better performance with minimum reduction in seedling’s length and biomasses at -0.75MPa and -1.0MPa osmotic stress. TD-1 exhibited least reduction (15.26%) in chlorophyll pigments and enhanced accumulation of K+ ions at highest osmotic stress level. Maximum K+/Ca2+ ratio was determined in ESW-9525 and TD-1 which is the tolerance trait. Hence, TD-1 and ESW-9525 have more drought stress tolerance capacity as compare to other genotypes. © 2017, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Arain M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Sial M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Arif Rajput M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Mirbahar A.A.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Stability for grain yield performance and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction was studied in twelve (nine advance genotypes and 3 checks) wheat genotypes evaluated at various locations having different agro-climatic conditions in Sindh province of Pakistan over two years. The combined and individual analysis of variance for locations and years was conducted. Pooled analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p≤0.01) difference for genotypes, environments and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. A joint regression analysis was applied to grain yield data to estimate the stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), s.e. (b) and deviation from regression coefficients (S 2d) for each genotype. Genotype MSH-14 produced the highest mean yield (5090 kg/ha) in all environments averaged for two years, and had regression coefficient (b) close to unity (0.86) and S2d close to zero (0.7923). This indicated wide adaptation and stability of performance of MSH-14 in all environments. Other high yielding genotypes MSH-03 and MSH-05 ranked 2nd and 3rd showing regression coefficient (b=0.78 and 0.69 respectively) and deviation from regression (S 2d= 1.076 and 1.29 respectively) indicating specific adaptability of these genotypes to harsh (un favorable) environments. These findings suggested that both the genotypes could be used as stress tolerant genotypes under stressed environments (such as drought, heat and salinity stress).

He Y.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Hou P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Fan G.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Arain S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Peng C.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2014

The medicinal plants from the genus Coptis were widely applied in clinical treatment, but no stable and systemic methods have been established for species identification and quality evaluation. Although several analytical methods have been reported for the detection of alkaloids, so far no attempt has been made to analyze the interspecific relationships between molecular phylogeny and main alkaloids in Coptis. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Coptis from China are resolved with high support. Coptis chinensis, Coptis deltoidea and Coptis omeiensis cluster together, and this clade ('clade III') is sister to Coptis teeta. Here, we provide evidences that the relationships inferred by chemical taxonomy are different to those of the present molecular phylogeny. Within clade III, C. deltoidea, C. omeiensis and C. chinensis are sister to C. teeta, while C. teeta shares more similar metabolic compounds with C. deltoidea, and C. omeiensis than with C. chinensis. Most likely, the metabolic components are mainly affected by environmental factors resulting in convergent evolution of alkaloid contents that do not reflect phylogenetic relationships. © 2014.

Suleman N.,University of Leeds | Suleman N.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Raja S.,University of Leeds | Raja S.,The Institute of Plant and Environmental Protection | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Entomology | Year: 2011

1. Figs on male dioecious fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae) are breeding sites for pollinator fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae), but figs on female plants are traps that produce only seeds. As the short-lived fig wasps cannot reproduce in female figs, natural selection should favour individuals that avoid them. Several studies have failed to detect such discrimination, a result attributed to inter-sexual mimicry and 'selection to rush' in the wasps, but their experiments failed to explicitly take into account fig age (how long they had been waiting to be pollinated). 2. We compared the relative attraction of male and female figs of known ages of the South East Asian Ficus montana Burm. f. to its pollina tor Liporrhopalum tentacularis Grandi and examined how the reproductive success of the plant and its pollinator change with the age of the figs. 3. Mean retention time for un-pollinated figs on female plants was 16 days whereas in male figs it was 12 days. Female figs remained attractive for up to 2 weeks, although the wasps were less willing to enter older figs. After pollinator entry, receptivity continued for several days, lasting longer in figs entered by a single wasp. Consistent with abortion rates, attractiveness persisted longer in female figs. Older figs produced fewer fig wasp offspring, but similar numbers of seeds. 4. The sexual differences in floral longevity in F. montana may represent part of a previously un-recognised reproductive strategy in some fig trees that allows male plants to 'export' pollinators while also maintaining a resident fig wasp population. © 2011 The Authors. Ecological Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

Sial M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Arain M.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Laghari K.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Khanzada S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

A new wheat variety NIA-Amber developed by NIA Tando Jam has been released by the Government of Sindh in the year 2010. NIA-Amber possesses semi-dwarf stature with high tillering capacity endowed with high grain yield, early maturity, better grain quality and resistance to lodging. It possesses the highest protein content (16.02%), highest wet gluten (37.1%), high dry gluten (12.0%), and high SDS value (28.5). It confirmed its superiority in grain yield in series of trials such as preliminary yield trials (PYT), advanced strains yield trials (AST), comparative yield trials, micro yield trials, zonal trials and national trials. It showed stability and wide adaptation over different environments in province of Sindh. It performed well under normal and late conditions. It showed increase in yield with addition of zinc in combination with other fertilizers NPK. The variety showed resistance against leaf rust and tolerance to yellow rust diseases. In NUWYT, it produced higher grain yield and ranked first in Sindh under late sowing conditions; whereas, it acquired 6th position in NUWYT under normal sowings. The variety has the potential yield of 6406 kg/ha. Its release will make a significant contribution to genetic diversity and enhance the stability of yield, which will ultimately improve the socio-economic conditions of the farmers of the province of Sindh.

Yasin Ashraf M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Yaqub M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Akhtar J.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Athar Khan M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Fruit yield and quality of citrus, especially KINNOW (Citrus deliciosa x Citrus nobilis) in Pakistan is not competitive with that of other countries which could be attributed mainly to the lack of appropriate nutrient management for citrus orchards. The yield losses in citrus occur mainly due to excessive fruit drop. Experiments to overcome these problems were conducted at four different sites one each in Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh, Jhang and Sargodha districts of Punjab, Pakistan. The soil and leaf chemical analysis showed severe deficiency of Zn in Kinnow. In the present studies, effect of foliar application of Zn, K and salicylic acid (SA) alone or in combination was investigated on fruit yield, excessive fruit drop and juice quality. The fruit trees were pretreated with a selected NPK level. Zinc (0.25% ZnSO4 solution), K (0.25% K2SO4 solution) and salicylic acid (10 μM) were sprayed at three different stages, i.e. the onset of spring/flush of leaves or flowers, fruit formation and color initiation on fruit. Overall, application of Zn, K and SA or Zn+K+SA was effective in improving the yield and quality parameters of citrus fruit at all sites. Although fruit drop was reduced by the foliar spray of Zn, K, SA or Zn+K but three foliar sprays of 10μM SA + 0.25% each of Zn and K reduced the citrus fruit drop by 30% and also improved the juice quality. Kinnow fruit yield and juice quality can be effectively enhanced with proper nutrient and hormone applications depending on site conditions.

Salahuddin S.,Agriculture Research Institute | Abro S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Rehman A.,International Center for Chemical and Biological science | Iqbal K.,Agriculture Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Correlation and regression studies of cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum L., were analysed for quantitative characters. Results revealed that highly significant positive correlation (r=0.567) was displayed by sympodial branches with seed cotton yield, which showed that seed cotton yield was greatly influenced by sympodial branches. The coefficient of determination (r2=0.321) revealed 32.1% variation in the seed cotton yield per plant, due to its relationship with sympodial branches per plant. Regression coefficient (b=5.66) showed that a unit increase in sympodial branches per plant resulted into a proportional increase of 5.66 gms in seed cotton yield per plant, whereas bolls per plant exhibited strong positive association with seed cotton yield (r=0.959). The coefficient of determination (r2=0.92) revealed 92% of the total variation in seed cotton yield attributable to the variation in number of bolls per plant. The regression coefficient (b=3.37) indicated that for a unit increase in bolls per plant, there would be a proportional increase of 3.37 gms in seed cotton yield per plant. Boll weight displayed a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.597) with seed cotton yield per plant. The coefficient of determination (r2=0.356) determined that boll weight was responsible for 35.6% variation in seed cotton yield per plant. The regression coefficient (b=53.479) indicated that a unit increase in boll weight resulted into corresponding increase of 53.48 gms in seed cotton yield per plant. However, the plant height and monopodial branches per plant showed non significant association with the yield per plant.

Kjellberg F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Suleman N.,University of Leeds | Suleman N.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Raja S.,University of Leeds | And 4 more authors.
Acta Oecologica | Year: 2014

The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.The ratios of number of male flowers on number of female flowers in a glasshouse-maintained F.montana population were highly variable. When fig wasps were introduced into receptive female figs, the resulting seed numbers were strongly linked to the numbers of pollinators that had been seeking access to pollen, relative to the number of anthers in their natal figs. In F.carica estimates of the amounts of pollen produced per fig and the quantities of pollen carried by emerging fig wasps suggest that less than 10% of the pollen is transported. Pollinators of F. carica that emerged earlier from figs carried more pollen, and also generated more seeds when introduced into receptive female figs.We show here that all pollinators are not equally valuable and producing more pollinators is not necessarily a good option in terms of Ficus male fitness. Previous results on F.montana figs showed that only around half of the flowers where pollinators lay eggs produced adult offspring. The amount of pollen collected by young female fig wasps may be a major determinant of their reproductive success. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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