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Suleman N.,University of Leeds | Suleman N.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Raja S.,University of Leeds | Raja S.,The Institute of Plant and Environmental Protection | Compton S.G.,University of Leeds
Ecological Entomology | Year: 2013

Fig trees (Ficus) and their species-specific pollinators (Agaonidae) represent a remarkable example of a coevolved mutualism. A number of non-pollinating fig wasps (gallers and parasitoids, NPFW) are also an integral part of the mutualism, but have a negative impact on the reproductive success of the mutualists. Most NPFW belong to subfamilies only associated with figs and clearly have a long association with the plants and their pollinators. In the present study, the costs imposed by an undescribed parasitoid Sycoscapter sp. on its host pollinator Kradibia (= Liporrhopalum) tentacularis of a dioecious fig tree Ficus montana maintained under glasshouse conditions are described. It was asked whether pollinator numbers and sex ratios are changed by the presence or absence of parasitoids within individual figs. The effect of fig densities on parasitism rates at two spatial scales and within the general glasshouse population was also recorded. Parasitoid aggregation in relation to pollinator densities inside figs was also examined. Sycoscapter sp. significantly reduced the numbers of pollinators emerging from the figs, but host sex ratios were not distorted. The parasitoid showed host density independence at both spatial scales of fig densities, but targeted individual figs that contained higher initial densities of pollinators. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society. Source

Rehman F.-U.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Adeel S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Shahid M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Bhatti I.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2013

Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4. kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60. °C keeping M:. L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hussain R.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ahmad R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nawaz F.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Ashraf M.Y.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Waraich E.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2016

The supplemental foliar application of nutrients is a viable approach to mitigate the drastic effects of water stress on growth and productivity of crop plants. However, the choice of an effective combination of elements is necessary to achieve the desired results. We report the role of foliar applied nitrogen and potassium in improving the drought tolerance of two sunflower hybrids, i.e., Hysun-33 (drought tolerant) and LG-5551 (drought susceptible). The combined effect of NKc was found to be effective in maintaining turgor, enhancing accumulation of osmoprotectants, increasing stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis and reducing the production of reactive oxygen species and resulted in higher yield under water deficit conditions. Foliar spray of NKc also improved the concentration of N (7 %), P (27 %) and K (27 %) in achenes. The exposure to drought stress was observed to be more detrimental at vegetative than reproductive stage. Moreover, Hysun-33 performed better than LG-5551 under both normal and water deficit conditions. To the best of our knowledge, the study provides one of the first reports regarding combined nutrients application to regulate physiological and biochemical mechanisms responsible for improved drought tolerance in sunflower. © 2016, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Source

Nawazish S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hussain M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.Y.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Jamil A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to examine the intensity and effects of automobile related metal pollution (Pb2+ & Cd2+) on soil and physiological attributes of native plant species i.e., Calotropis procera, Cenchrus ciliaris and Parthenium hysterophorus. For this purpose, soil and plant samples were collected from zero and 50 m distances on Motorway (M-3; five sites) and National Highway (N-5; six sites), Pakistan. The samples were analyzed to assess the concentration of heavy metals (Pb2+ & Cd2+) being absorbed by the selected plants from vehicular smoke, and their effect on some physiological attributes. Results revealed that Pb2+ and Cd2+ in soil were significantly higher (P<0.05) in samples took from 0 m compared with that at 50 m distance on both M-3 and N-5. The leaves of C. ciliaris along M-3 trapped highest amount of Pb2+and Cd2+ (P< 0.001) while along N-5, leaves of Cal. procera and P. hyterophorus had maximum (P<0.05) deposition of Pb2+ and Cd2+, respectively. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 of plants were highly decreased (P<0.01); whereas, inconsistent increase and decrease in water use efficiency was noticed in samples at 0 m compared with 50 m distance. The decrease in gas exchange characteristics might be due to the deposition of Pb2+ and Cd2+ which block stomata aperture causing reduction in photosynthetic activity of plants along roadsides. These findings may have their application as bio-indicators to detect the presence of atmospheric pollutants on plants to identify and predict the environmental hazards. ©2012 Friends Science Publishers. Source

Tanveer H.,The University of Lahore | Ali S.,The University of Lahore | Rafique Asi M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology NIAB
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2012

Leaf and internode explants from in vitro grown seedlings of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schard. were used to establish callus cultures in MS media supplemented with different concentrations (ranging from 1 to 3 mg/L) and combinations of plant growth regulators like BAP with NAA, and Kin with 2, 4-D. BAP 3 mg/L and NAA 2 mg/L supported green to yellowish green embryogenic callus from internode explant with callus index of 300 and callus initiation commenced in 3 days. Leaf explant produced green callus under influence of 2, 4-D 2 mg/L and Kin 1 mg/L with callus index of 200 and callus initiation duration was 15 d. Leaf and internode tissues from in vitro grown seedlings and leaf and internode calli were analyzed for secondary metabolites through GC-MS. Nineteen compounds were detected from leaf and internode tissues. From the comparative analysis of secondary metabolites it can be concluded that regardless of a few different compounds, most of the secondary metabolites from seedlings were present in their respective calluses. © 2012 Friends Science Publishers. © 2012 Friends Science Publishers. Source

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