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Waraich E.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Yaseen Ashraf M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Saifullah S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2011

Improvement of agricultural water use efficiency is of major concern with drought problems being one of the most important factors limiting grain production worldwide. Effective management of water for crop production in water-scarce areas requires efficient approaches. Increasing crop water use efficiency and drought tolerance by genetic improvement and physiological regulation may be a means to achieve efficient and effective use of water. A limited water supply inhibits the photosynthesis of plants, causes changes of chlorophyll contents and components and damage to photosynthetic apparatus. It also inhibits photochemical activities and decreases the activities of enzymes in plants.Water stress is one of the important factors inhibiting the growth and photosynthetic abilities of plants through disturbing the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant defence, causing accumulation of reactive oxygen species which induce oxidative stress to proteins, membrane lipids and other cellular components. A number of approaches are being used to enhance water use efficiency and to minimize the detrimental effect of water stress in crop plants. Proper plant nutrition is a good strategy to enhance water use efficiency and productivity in crop plants. Plant nutrients play a very important role in enhancing water use efficiency under limited water supply. In this paper we discuss the possible effective techniques to improve water use efficiency and some macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium), micronutrients (zinc, boron, iron, manganese, molybdenum and chloride), and silicon (a beneficial nutrient) in detail to show how these nutrients play their role in enhancing water use efficiency in crop plant. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Waraich E.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad R.,University of Western Australia | Saifullah,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.Y.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Ehsanullah,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Water, the most important component of life, is rapidly becoming a critically short commodity for humans and crop production. Limited water supply is one of the major abiotic factors that adversely affect agricultural crop production worldwide. Drought stress influences the normal physiology and growth of plants in many ways. It results in an increase of solute concentration outside the roots compared to the internal environment of the root and causes reverse osmosis. As a result, the cell membrane shrinks from the cell wall and may eventually lead to death of the cell. Water stress tends to shrink away from the interface with water-absorbing roots, creating a gap in the soil-plant-air continuum. As the plant continues to lose water via transpiration, water is drawn from root cells resulting in shrinkage of cell membranes and results in decreased integrity of the cell membrane and the living cell may be destroyed. Drought stress inhibits photosynthesis in plants by closing stomata and damaging the chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic apparatus. It disturbs the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant defence, causing accumulation of ROS which induces oxidative stress to proteins, membrane lipids and other cellular component. Mineral elements have numerous functions in plants including maintaining charge balance, electron carriers, structural components, enzyme activation, and providing osmoticum for turgor and growth .In this paper, an overview of some macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium), micronutrients (Zinc, Boron, Copper) and silicon has been discussed in detail as how these nutrients play their role in decreasing the adverse effects of drought in crop plant. Source


Javed S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Bukhari S.A.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Yasin Ashraf M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Mahmood S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Iftikhar T.,Government College University at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori- 78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties. Source


Kausar A.,The University of Faisalabad | Ashraf M.Y.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Niaz M.,The University of Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Soil salinization is the most important limiting factor in plant productivity all over the world. To fulfill the food, feed, fodder and industrial raw material demands of growing population, development of salt tolerant and high yielding crop genotypes are necessary. The genotypes having efficient N metabolism produce high biomass/plant productivity under saline conditions are tolerant one. This study was conducted to explore the salinity induced changes in nitrogen metabolism of sorghum. A sand culture experiment with four sorghum genotypes was conducted in NIAB wire-house under natural conditions in plastic pots containing 0, 10 dS m-1 NaCl salinity solutions along with 1/5 Hoaglands nutrient solution. Physiological parameters like dry biomasss of shoots and roots, leaf proteins, total nitrogen, total free amino acids, nitrate reductase activity, and NO3 were reduced due to salinity in all sorghum genotypes. Salinity influence was more pronounced in Noor medium sensitive and FJ-115 sensitive. On the basis of results obtained for nitrogen metabolism, sorghum lines JS-2002 and Sandalbar can be categorized as tolerant, Noor medium sensitive and FJ-115 as sensitive one. Source


Randhawa M.A.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Anjum F.M.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Ahmed A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Nawaz H.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2014

Mitigation in endosulfan residues was determined in spinach, cauliflower, potato, brinjal, tomato, and okra by using different techniques. The endosulfan residues were determined in 66 samples of different vegetables, and it was found that the highest endosulfan residues (mg kg-1) were at the raw stage in okra (1.71), brinjal (1.50), and spinach (1.16), respectively. The residue of endosulfan was lowest in potato (0.130) mg kg-1. Washing reduced the endosulfan residue from 15 to 28%, peeling reduced it from 60 to 67%, and cooking further lowered it from 18 to 31% in all vegetables. Dietary intake assessment revealed that only samples of okra exceeded the maximum permissible intake value at the raw stage, whereas all the other samples were below maximum permissible intake value, although some were exceeding the maximum residue limits at the raw stage. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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