Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology

Faisalābād, Pakistan

Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology

Faisalābād, Pakistan

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Waraich E.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad R.,University of Western Australia | Saifullah,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.Y.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Ehsanullah,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Water, the most important component of life, is rapidly becoming a critically short commodity for humans and crop production. Limited water supply is one of the major abiotic factors that adversely affect agricultural crop production worldwide. Drought stress influences the normal physiology and growth of plants in many ways. It results in an increase of solute concentration outside the roots compared to the internal environment of the root and causes reverse osmosis. As a result, the cell membrane shrinks from the cell wall and may eventually lead to death of the cell. Water stress tends to shrink away from the interface with water-absorbing roots, creating a gap in the soil-plant-air continuum. As the plant continues to lose water via transpiration, water is drawn from root cells resulting in shrinkage of cell membranes and results in decreased integrity of the cell membrane and the living cell may be destroyed. Drought stress inhibits photosynthesis in plants by closing stomata and damaging the chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic apparatus. It disturbs the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant defence, causing accumulation of ROS which induces oxidative stress to proteins, membrane lipids and other cellular component. Mineral elements have numerous functions in plants including maintaining charge balance, electron carriers, structural components, enzyme activation, and providing osmoticum for turgor and growth .In this paper, an overview of some macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium), micronutrients (Zinc, Boron, Copper) and silicon has been discussed in detail as how these nutrients play their role in decreasing the adverse effects of drought in crop plant.


Waraich E.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Yaseen Ashraf M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Saifullah S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2011

Improvement of agricultural water use efficiency is of major concern with drought problems being one of the most important factors limiting grain production worldwide. Effective management of water for crop production in water-scarce areas requires efficient approaches. Increasing crop water use efficiency and drought tolerance by genetic improvement and physiological regulation may be a means to achieve efficient and effective use of water. A limited water supply inhibits the photosynthesis of plants, causes changes of chlorophyll contents and components and damage to photosynthetic apparatus. It also inhibits photochemical activities and decreases the activities of enzymes in plants.Water stress is one of the important factors inhibiting the growth and photosynthetic abilities of plants through disturbing the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant defence, causing accumulation of reactive oxygen species which induce oxidative stress to proteins, membrane lipids and other cellular components. A number of approaches are being used to enhance water use efficiency and to minimize the detrimental effect of water stress in crop plants. Proper plant nutrition is a good strategy to enhance water use efficiency and productivity in crop plants. Plant nutrients play a very important role in enhancing water use efficiency under limited water supply. In this paper we discuss the possible effective techniques to improve water use efficiency and some macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium), micronutrients (zinc, boron, iron, manganese, molybdenum and chloride), and silicon (a beneficial nutrient) in detail to show how these nutrients play their role in enhancing water use efficiency in crop plant. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Randhawa M.A.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Anjum F.M.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Ahmed A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Nawaz H.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2014

Mitigation in endosulfan residues was determined in spinach, cauliflower, potato, brinjal, tomato, and okra by using different techniques. The endosulfan residues were determined in 66 samples of different vegetables, and it was found that the highest endosulfan residues (mg kg-1) were at the raw stage in okra (1.71), brinjal (1.50), and spinach (1.16), respectively. The residue of endosulfan was lowest in potato (0.130) mg kg-1. Washing reduced the endosulfan residue from 15 to 28%, peeling reduced it from 60 to 67%, and cooking further lowered it from 18 to 31% in all vegetables. Dietary intake assessment revealed that only samples of okra exceeded the maximum permissible intake value at the raw stage, whereas all the other samples were below maximum permissible intake value, although some were exceeding the maximum residue limits at the raw stage. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Javed S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Bukhari S.A.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Yasin Ashraf M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Mahmood S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Iftikhar T.,Government College University at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori- 78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties.


Kausar A.,The University of Faisalabad | Yasin Ashraf M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Ali I.,The University of Faisalabad | Niaz M.,The University of Faisalabad | Abbass Q.,The University of Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Salinity is a major threat to irrigated agriculture in Pakistan as it is adversely affecting growth and yield of crops to various extents. So, different strategies have been adopted to overcome this problem of low productivity. Growing of salt tolerant crops is a good option to obtain economical yields from saline areas for which quick method to screen salt tolerant plants, particularly in early stages of their growth is important. For this purpose some green-house studies using some physiological parameters i.e., germination stress tolerance index (GSI), shoot length stress tolerance index (SLSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) and biomass stress tolerance index (BSI) were conducted to identify the salt tolerant lines of sorghum. On the basis of results obtained using the above physiological criteria, sorghum lines JS-2002 and Sandalbar were categorized as tolerant, Hegari- sorghum and JS-263 medium tolerant while Noor as medium sensitive and FJ-115 and PSV-4 as sensitive ones. The results also indicated that the physiological parameters tried in the present study are useful to screen large quantity of sorghum germplasm for salt tolerance leading to selection of suitable lines that can be recommended for different saline areas to improve yields.


Qayyum M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Wakil W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Arif M.J.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Sahi S.T.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2015

Field populations of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner from 15 localities across the Punjab, Pakistan, were assessed by the leaf dip method for resistance against formulated organophosphates, pyrethroids, and newer insecticide groups. Resistance levels in H. armigera have been incrementally increasing for organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides after decades of use in Pakistan. Resistance ratios (RRs) documented for organophosphates were 24- to 116-fold for profenofos and 22- to 87-fold for chlorpyrifos. For pyrethroids, RRs were 3- to 69-fold for Cypermethrin and 3- to 27-fold for deltamethrin. Resistance levels against newer chemistries were 2- to 24-fold for chlorfenapyr, 1- to 22-fold for spinosad, 1- to 20-fold for indoxacarb, 1- to 18-fold for abamectin, and 1- to 16-fold for emamectin benzoate. Resistant populations of H. armigera were mainly in the southern part of the Punjab, Pakistan. The most resistant populations were collected from Pakpattan, Multan, and Muzzafargarh. Of the nine insecticides tested, LC50 and LC90 values were lower for newer insecticide groups; resistance levels were moderate to very high against organophosphates, very low to high against pyrethroids, and very low to low against the newerchemistry insecticides. These findings suggest that the newer-chemistry insecticides with different modes of action could be included in insecticide rotations or replace the older insecticides. Supplementing the use of synthetic insecticides with safer alternatives could help to successfully lower the farmer's reliance on insecticides and the incidence of resistance due to repeated use of insecticides against major insect pests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.


Javed S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.Y.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Meraj M.,Health Science University | Bukhari S.A.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Zovia I.,Government College University at Faisalabad
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Six cultivars of safflower which were (PI-387820, PI-251978, PI-170274, PI-387821, PI-386174 and Thori-78) grown in net house of NIAB under salinity (10 ds m-1) and drought (60% field capacity) conditions and compared to their oxidative damage and antioxidative responses. Plant samples (leaves) were collected for the determination of malonidialdehyde (MDA), antioxidative enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase), proline, and photosynthetic pigments. Salinity and drought decreased the chlorophyll a and b contents but a decrease in chlorophyll a and b was less in safflower variety (THORI-78) which could be a useful marker for selecting a stress tolerant variety. Both stresses considerable increases the accumulation of proline in PI-251978, PI-170274, PI-387821, PI-386174 and THORI-78 varieties of safflower whereas the proline accumulation did not appear to be an essential part of the protection mechanism against salinity and drought in variety PI-387820. Enzyme activity measurements revealed that THORI-78 can tolerate salinity and drought stress well by increasing the activity of catalase and APX enzymes whereas variety PI-386174 showed increased activity of glutathione reductase enzyme under salinity and drought and appear to be very crucial antioxidative defenses during intense stress conditions. The results indicate that the photosynthetic pigments, proline and activities of the enzymes are important mechanism for the stress tolerance in safflower plant and can be considered as genetic improvement for the plant in salinity and drought soil conditions. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.


Jahan N.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khalil-ur-Rahman,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Rafiq Asi M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

In the present study the amount of three important flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin) and five phenolic acids (gallic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, vanillic acid and caffeic acid) were determined from four medicinally important indigenous plants like Euphorbia tirucalli, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Cyperus rotundus and Rheum emodi. Methanolic extracts of native parts and gemmo-modified extracts from fresh germinating parts of medicinal plants were prepared and investigated by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC). The total flavonols contents varied significantly among medicinal plants. Rheum emodi exhibited the highest amount of total flavonols (881.5±1.3 mg kg-1) but among gemmo-modified extracts, higher flavonols were detected in gemmo-modified extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum as compared to its seed extracts. However the other gemmo-modified extract of Cyperus rotundus showed relatively less total flavonol than rhizome extract. Gallic and ferulic acid were the most abundant phenolic acids identified in all plants. The chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acids are main phenolic acids present in these plants. Caffeic acid was only detected in gemmo-modified extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum. The significant amount of a variety of flavonol and phenolic acids that may impart their medicinal potential for alleviation of any disorder were available in the investigated plants.


PubMed | Nuclear institute of Agriculture and Biology and University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2015

Climate change has emerged as one of the most complex challenges of the 21st century and has become an area of interest in the past few decades. Many countries of the world have become extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The scarcity of water is a serious concern for food security of these countries and climate change has aggravated the risks of extreme events like drought. Oxidative stress, caused by a variety of active oxygen species formed under drought stress, damages many cellular constituents, such as carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins, which ultimately reduces plant growth, respiration and photosynthesis. Se has become an element of interest to many biologists owing to its physiological and toxicological importance. It plays a beneficial role in plants by enhancing growth, reducing damage caused by oxidative stress, enhancing chlorophyll content under light stress, stimulating senesce to produce antioxidants and improving plant tolerance to drought stress by regulating water status. Researchers have adopted different strategies to evaluate the role of selenium in plants under drought stress. Some of the relevant work available regarding the role of Se in alleviating adverse effect of drought stress is discussed in this paper.


PubMed | Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology, University of Agriculture at Faisalabad and University of Melbourne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

Field populations of Helicoverpa armigera Hbner from 15 localities across the Punjab, Pakistan, were assessed by the leaf dip method for resistance against formulated organophosphates, pyrethroids, and newer insecticide groups. Resistance levels in H. armigera have been incrementally increasing for organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides after decades of use in Pakistan. Resistance ratios (RRs) documented for organophosphates were 24- to 116-fold for profenofos and 22- to 87-fold for chlorpyrifos. For pyrethroids, RRs were 3- to 69-fold for cypermethrin and 3- to 27-fold for deltamethrin. Resistance levels against newer chemistries were 2- to 24-fold for chlorfenapyr, 1- to 22-fold for spinosad, 1- to 20-fold for indoxacarb, 1- to 18-fold for abamectin, and 1- to 16-fold for emamectin benzoate. Resistant populations of H. armigera were mainly in the southern part of the Punjab, Pakistan. The most resistant populations were collected from Pakpattan, Multan, and Muzzafargarh. Of the nine insecticides tested, LC50 and LC90 values were lower for newer insecticide groups; resistance levels were moderate to very high against organophosphates, very low to high against pyrethroids, and very low to low against the newer-chemistry insecticides. These findings suggest that the newer-chemistry insecticides with different modes of action could be included in insecticide rotations or replace the older insecticides. Supplementing the use of synthetic insecticides with safer alternatives could help to successfully lower the farmers reliance on insecticides and the incidence of resistance due to repeated use of insecticides against major insect pests.

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