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Eqani S.A.-M.-A.-S.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Eqani S.A.-M.-A.-S.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Malik R.N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Cincinelli A.,University of Florence | And 7 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in eleven edible fish species (5 herbivorous and 6 carnivorous) collected from the River Chenab, Pakistan, during 2007-2009. Total OCP and PCB concentrations (ngg-1 wet weight, ww) ranged between 13-107 (mean: 38) and 3.1-93.7 (mean: 20) for five herbivorous fish species and 21.6-365 (mean: 148) and 2.5-108 (mean: 30) for six carnivorous species, respectively. The trends of detected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in fish samples were: DDTs>PCBs>chlordanes>HCHs. The mean concentration(s) (ngg-1 ww) of OCPs were relatively higher in all fish species collected near industrial areas followed by urban and agricultural areas. Risk assessment of OCPs and PCBs indicated that fish intake may pose health risk to humans with a consumption rate of >8g/person/day. The hazardous ratios for the 50th and 95th percentile data of OCPs and PCBs in fish exceeded the value of 1, suggesting that the daily exposure to OCPs and PCBs yield a lifetime cancer risk greater than 1 in 10,000. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Farid A.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

Traditionally, pest management experiments in specific and agricultural experiments in general involve testing of various treatments or interventions to make recommendations that are based on the treatments/technologies that lead to a maximum increase in crop yield. Such recommendations, however, may not always be economically viable for farmers. Economic analysis of the research data can provide an estimate of risks and profitability of the proposed technologies before making recommendations for the farmers. Marginal analysis is one of such techniques which can assist research workers in decision making. A software has been developed to facilitate calculations involved and getting automated results for marginal rate of return (MRR). Along with the values of MRR, the software provides the values of residuals to assist in selecting the appropriate technology.

Muhammad W.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA | Vaughan S.M.,University of Queensland | Dalal R.C.,University of Queensland | Menzies N.W.,University of Queensland
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2011

Crop residues with high C/N ratio immobilize N released during decomposition in soil, thus reducing N losses through leaching, denitrification, and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 84 days under controlled conditions (24°C and moisture content 55% of water-holding capacity) to study the influence of sugarcane, maize, sorghum, cotton and lucerne residues, and mineral N addition, on N mineralization-immobilization and N2O emission. Residues were added at the rate of 3 t C ha-1 to soil with, and without, 150 kg urea N ha-1. The addition of sugarcane, maize, and sorghum residues without N fertilizer resulted in a significant immobilization of soil N. Amended soil had significantly (Ṕ 0.05) lower NO3 --N, which reached minimum values of 2.8 mg N kg-1 for sugarcane (at day 28), 10.3 mg N kg-1 for maize (day 7), and 5.9 mg N kg-1 for sorghum (day 7), compared to 22.7 mg N kg-1 for the unamended soil (day 7). During 84 days of incubation, the total mineral N in the residues + N treatments were decreased by 45 mg N kg-1 in sugarcane, 34 mg kg-1 in maize, 29 mg kg-1 in sorghum, and 16 mg kg-1 in cotton amended soil compared to soil + N fertilizer, although soil NO3 --N increased by 7 mg kg-1 in lucerne amended soil. The addition of residues also significantly increased amended soil microbial biomass C and N. Maximum emissions of N2O from crop residue amended soils occurred in the first 4-5 days of incubation. Overall, after 84 days of incubation, the cumulative N2O emission was 25% lower with cotton + N fertilizer, compared to soil + N fertilizer. The cumulative N2O emission was significantly and positively correlated with NO3 --N (r = 0.92, Ṕ 0.01) and total mineral N (r = 0.93, Ṕ 0.01) after 84 days of incubation, and had a weak but significant positive correlation with cumulative CO2 in the first 3 and 5 days of incubation (r = 0.59, Ṕ 0.05). © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Fatima Khattak K.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA | Fatima Khattak K.,University of Bristol | James Simpson T.,University of Bristol
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2010

The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly (p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant. © 2009.

Khattak K.F.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2012

Whole plant of . Fagonia arabica with 3 different particle sizes (30, 50 and 70 mesh) were exposed to gamma radiation doses of 1-10. kGy from a Cobalt 60 source. A series of tests was performed in order to check the feasibility of irradiation processing of the plant. The applied radiation doses did not affect (. P<0.05) pH and antimicrobial activities of the plant. The total weight of the dry extracts in methanol as well as water was found increased with irradiation. The irradiated samples showed significant increase in phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity using DPPH. Shortly after irradiation (on the day of radiation treatment) high amounts of free radicals were detected in the irradiated plant samples and the chemiluminescence measurements were generally found to be dose dependent. Maximum luminescence intensity was observed in case of samples with mesh size of 30 for all the radiation doses applied. After a period of one month the chemiluminescence signals of the irradiated samples approximated those of the controls. The study suggests that gamma irradiation treatment is effective for quality improvement and enhances certain beneficial biological properties of the treated materials. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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