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Mahmood K.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is regarded as salt tolerant among crop plants, its growth and plant development is severely affected by ionic and osmotic stresses in salt-affected soils. To elucidate the tolerance mechanism, growth and ion uptake of three barley cultivars, differing in salt tolerance, were examined under different levels of NaCl, K +/Na + and NaHCO 3 in the root medium. The cultivars differed greatly in their responses to varying root medium conditions. Plant growth was more adversely affected by NaHCO 3 than NaCl. In general, biomass yields were comparable under control and 100 mM NaCl. However, growth of all three cultivars was significantly inhibited by NaHCO 3 even at low concentration (10 mM). Improved K + supply in saline medium increased K + uptake and growth of less tolerant cultivars. K + uptake was more adversely affected by NaHCO 3 than NaCl salinity. Selective K + uptake and lower Cl - in shoots seemed to be associated with the growth responses. K application would help better growth of these cultivars on K-deficient saline-sodic soils and under irrigation with poor quality water having high Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and/or Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR).


Suleman N.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB
Entomological Science | Year: 2015

Among ladybirds, diapause has evidently been most studied in Coccinella septempunctataL. adults. Coccinella septempunctata (C-7), the seven spot, has attracted attention both in Europe and the USA for being heterogeneous as to the induction of diapause. A polyphenic character of diapause is a prominent feature in C.septempunctata and this phenomenon generally and often generates voltinism heterogeneity within populations. A greater part of the C-7 population shows an obligatory univoltine cycle, whereas a smaller proportion is facultatively polyvoltine. Coccinellas. bruckii in Japan is bivoltine, in which the first generation of adults aestivate while the second generation hibernates. This paper reviews this heterodynamic cycle and its importance in the life history of C-7, as reported from different regions of the world. Heterogeneous voltinism and diapause smooth the progress of a portion of C-7 populations to take benefit of aphids well into late summer and autumn. Understanding such variation and plasticity in the life history of this species can help in organizing proper biological control attempts using it as a biocontrol agent. © 2014 The Entomological Society of Japan.


Iqbal S.Z.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Iqbal S.Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Nisar S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Jinap S.,University Putra Malaysia
Food Control | Year: 2014

Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analyzed in 115 chicken meat and 80 eggs samples, collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was carried out using reverse phase HPLC, equipped with fluorescence detector. The results revealed that 35% samples of chicken and 28% samples of eggs were found contaminated with AFs, and maximum level of AFB1 and total AFs was found in the liver part of chicken (layer) 7.86 and 8.01μg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, 41% samples of chicken and 35% sample of eggs were found contaminated with OTA and maximum level 4.70μg/kg was found in the liver part of chicken meat. However, 52% samples of meat and 32% samples of eggs were found contaminated with ZEN and maximum level 5.10μg/kg was found in the liver part of chicken meat. The occurrence and incidence of AFs, OTA and ZEN in chicken meat and eggs are alarming and it may produce health hazards and urged the need of continuous monitoring for these toxins in chicken meat and eggs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Iqbal S.Z.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Iqbal S.Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Jinap S.,University Putra Malaysia
Food Control | Year: 2013

Total 221 samples of milk and milk products were collected during winter (November 2011-February 2012) and 212 samples were collected during summer (May-August 2012) from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The samples were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) with a validated HPLC method equipped with florescence detector. The results revealed that from winter season almost 45% samples of milk and milk products were found to be contaminated with AFM1 i.e. 40% of raw milk, 51% of UHT milk, 37% of yogurt, 60% of butter and 43% of ice cream samples and 27, 24, 25, 34 and 17% of samples were found above the recommended limit for AFM1, respectively. However, from summer season 32% samples of milk and milk products were found to be contaminated i.e. 36% of raw milk, 31% of UHT milk, 29% of yogurt, 40% of butter and 24% of ice cream and 23, 23, 18, 20 and 5% of samples were found above the permissible limit for AFM1, respectively. The levels of contamination in winter milk and milk product samples were significantly higher (α≤0.05) than in summer season. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk and milk products were higher, demanding to implement strict regulations and also urged the need for continuous monitoring of milk and milk products in order to minimize the health hazards. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Iqbal S.Z.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Iqbal S.Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Rabbani T.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Jinap S.,University Putra Malaysia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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