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Mahmood K.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is regarded as salt tolerant among crop plants, its growth and plant development is severely affected by ionic and osmotic stresses in salt-affected soils. To elucidate the tolerance mechanism, growth and ion uptake of three barley cultivars, differing in salt tolerance, were examined under different levels of NaCl, K +/Na + and NaHCO 3 in the root medium. The cultivars differed greatly in their responses to varying root medium conditions. Plant growth was more adversely affected by NaHCO 3 than NaCl. In general, biomass yields were comparable under control and 100 mM NaCl. However, growth of all three cultivars was significantly inhibited by NaHCO 3 even at low concentration (10 mM). Improved K + supply in saline medium increased K + uptake and growth of less tolerant cultivars. K + uptake was more adversely affected by NaHCO 3 than NaCl salinity. Selective K + uptake and lower Cl - in shoots seemed to be associated with the growth responses. K application would help better growth of these cultivars on K-deficient saline-sodic soils and under irrigation with poor quality water having high Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and/or Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR).


Iqbal S.Z.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Iqbal S.Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Rabbani T.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Jinap S.,University Putra Malaysia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Suleman N.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB
Entomological Science | Year: 2015

Among ladybirds, diapause has evidently been most studied in Coccinella septempunctataL. adults. Coccinella septempunctata (C-7), the seven spot, has attracted attention both in Europe and the USA for being heterogeneous as to the induction of diapause. A polyphenic character of diapause is a prominent feature in C.septempunctata and this phenomenon generally and often generates voltinism heterogeneity within populations. A greater part of the C-7 population shows an obligatory univoltine cycle, whereas a smaller proportion is facultatively polyvoltine. Coccinellas. bruckii in Japan is bivoltine, in which the first generation of adults aestivate while the second generation hibernates. This paper reviews this heterodynamic cycle and its importance in the life history of C-7, as reported from different regions of the world. Heterogeneous voltinism and diapause smooth the progress of a portion of C-7 populations to take benefit of aphids well into late summer and autumn. Understanding such variation and plasticity in the life history of this species can help in organizing proper biological control attempts using it as a biocontrol agent. © 2014 The Entomological Society of Japan.


Iqbal S.Z.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Iqbal S.Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Nisar S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Jinap S.,University Putra Malaysia
Food Control | Year: 2014

Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analyzed in 115 chicken meat and 80 eggs samples, collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was carried out using reverse phase HPLC, equipped with fluorescence detector. The results revealed that 35% samples of chicken and 28% samples of eggs were found contaminated with AFs, and maximum level of AFB1 and total AFs was found in the liver part of chicken (layer) 7.86 and 8.01μg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, 41% samples of chicken and 35% sample of eggs were found contaminated with OTA and maximum level 4.70μg/kg was found in the liver part of chicken meat. However, 52% samples of meat and 32% samples of eggs were found contaminated with ZEN and maximum level 5.10μg/kg was found in the liver part of chicken meat. The occurrence and incidence of AFs, OTA and ZEN in chicken meat and eggs are alarming and it may produce health hazards and urged the need of continuous monitoring for these toxins in chicken meat and eggs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Hameed A.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Bibi N.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Akhter J.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Iqbal N.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Changes in enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative injury were evaluated in flag leaves of seven wheat genotypes under well watered (WW), medium watered (MW), low watered (LW) and soil stored moisture (SSM) conditions maintained in lysimeters through neutron moisture prob. Genotypes behaved differentially in terms of antioxidant response and stress induced injury under above indicated water deficit levels. In general, antioxidant enzymes were rarely enhanced under MW condition, often increased under LW condition while remained unchanged, elevated or diminished under SSM condition (severe stress). Higher CAT and POD activities were observed in NR-234 and in Pfau followed by FD-83 respectively under LW conditions. Under SSM condition, APX and POD increased significantly in Nesser and Pfau and CAT in NR-234, Nesser and Pfau, while remained at control level or decreased in other genotypes. In NR-234, SOD activity enhanced only under LW condition. However, SOD rose in Nesser, FD-83 and Sarsabz while remained unaffected in NR-241, Sitta and Pfau under all water deficit conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased significantly in FD-83 only under MW condition along with raised protease activity and protein contents. However, peroxidation of lipids was significantly enhanced in all genotypes under LW and SSM conditions. It was concluded that response of genotypes vary under different levels of water deficit. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging system was more actively involved in detoxification of oxidative stress induced by water deficit. Raised antioxidants (CAT, POD) resulting in comparatively lower lipid peroxidation in Pfau under SSM condition and in Sitta under LW condition confer stress tolerance in these genotypes. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Iqbal S.Z.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Iqbal S.Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Jinap S.,University Putra Malaysia
Food Control | Year: 2013

Total 221 samples of milk and milk products were collected during winter (November 2011-February 2012) and 212 samples were collected during summer (May-August 2012) from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The samples were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) with a validated HPLC method equipped with florescence detector. The results revealed that from winter season almost 45% samples of milk and milk products were found to be contaminated with AFM1 i.e. 40% of raw milk, 51% of UHT milk, 37% of yogurt, 60% of butter and 43% of ice cream samples and 27, 24, 25, 34 and 17% of samples were found above the recommended limit for AFM1, respectively. However, from summer season 32% samples of milk and milk products were found to be contaminated i.e. 36% of raw milk, 31% of UHT milk, 29% of yogurt, 40% of butter and 24% of ice cream and 23, 23, 18, 20 and 5% of samples were found above the permissible limit for AFM1, respectively. The levels of contamination in winter milk and milk product samples were significantly higher (α≤0.05) than in summer season. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk and milk products were higher, demanding to implement strict regulations and also urged the need for continuous monitoring of milk and milk products in order to minimize the health hazards. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Iqbal S.Z.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Zuber M.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Akhtar J.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Saif M.J.,Government College University at Faisalabad
Food Control | Year: 2013

Total 170 samples of chillies (chilli sauce, crushed chilli and powdered chilli) were analyzed by HPLC coupled with fluorescence detector. AFs were detected in 39, 59 and 56% of chilli sauce, crushed chilli and chilli powder samples from open market compared with 29, 54 and 58% samples respectively, from food restaurants. OTA was found 5 (19%), 11 (38%) and 13 (38%), in chilli sauce, crushed chilli and chilli powder from open market compared to 4 (17%), 14 (50%), and 12 (41%) samples respectively, from food restaurants. About 12, 27 and 35% chilli sauce, crushed chilli and powdered chilli samples from open market were found above the European Union (EU) limit for total AFs compared to 8, 32, and 41% samples from food restaurants. The daily intakes of AFs and OTA were 3.3 and 2 μg/kg, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ismail Chughtai M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Mahmood K.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

The saline water-logged area of Shorkot (District Jhang) along the Trimmu-Sidhnai Link and Haveli Canals is an excellent site for fish culture. Fish culture not only plays an important role in human nutrition but also in the rural economy of the country. The main purpose of present study was to identify the primary production and fish production patterns in villages under different management practices. Soil and water samples of seven selected fish farms were collected and analyzed for some physico-chemical and biological parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved O2, free CO 2, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), soil texture and plankton density. The costs and returns of carp culture in such saline water-logged areas were also calculated. Results indicated that all the six carp species were well adapted to different supplemental feeds along with salt-tolerant forages in saline environments. The net carps production ranged from 1198 to 1410 kg ha-1 year-1 and plankton density 565 to 1608 organisms L-1. The net profit obtained was Rs. 14652 to 19417 per acre with benefit-cost ratio 1.37 to 1.51 in brackish groundwater (EC 1.80 to 3.93 dS m-1), indicating the influence of environmental and management factors. The average fish yield was about 32.5% less than the yield obtained from freshwater pond culture. It may be concluded that saline aquaculture has potential to meet the demand of fishery products, generate income and contribute to sustainable food supplies. © 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Hamed M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Nadeem S.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

The effect of seven cereals viz., sorghum, wheat, oats, millet, paddy (Un-husked rice), barley and corn (Maize) which were fed to Sitotroga cerealella to induce the development and egg production of variable size by the moths, and potentially improving the parasitism and sex ratio of Trichogramma chilonis raised on eggs from moths were compared by measuring development from different larva diets. The 1st generation S. cerealella moths showed the highest adult progeny observed in sorghum (76.0) followed by wheat (75.3), oat (73.0), millet (70.8), paddy (67.6), barley (66.8) and corn (51.0) which was significantly less than all others. Developmental period was significantly higher in corn and oats followed by wheat, barley, and millet and significantly lower in paddy and sorghum. The tested cereals had a pronounced and significant effect on adult weight from highest to lowest in the following order: corn > wheat > barley > paddy > sorghum = oat > millet. In the second generation, there was considerable and significant effect on adult progeny. Developmental period and adult weight varied in same sequence as recorded in 1st generation. Fecundity and egg size differed significantly among moths fed with various tested cereals. Significantly larger eggs were produced from adults reared on corn followed by wheat, barley, paddy, oat and millet. Parasitism and adult emergence by Trichogramma were higher in larger host eggs by adults grown on corn and wheat, followed by host eggs received from adults reared on barley, paddy and sorghum. Wasp performance was lower in small size eggs from adults raised on millet followed by oats. The highest number of females emergence was produced on large sized eggs from corn-fed hosts, followed by in order by sorghum, wheat, paddy, millet, barley and oat. © 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Hameed A.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Goher M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Iqbal N.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2012

Six wheat genotypes were evaluated for heat tolerance in terms of seedling growth, antioxidant response and cell death. Based on the heat susceptibility index (HSI), response of the genotypes varied from heat tolerant (Inqilab-91) to heat sensitive (Sitta) along with moderately tolerant (Nesser and Sarsabz) and sensitive (Fareed and FD-83). Heat stress-induced programmed cell death (probably necrosis) in wheat leaves was evident by DNA smear. MDA content increased above twofold in most of genotypes under heat stress, with the lowest increase in the heat-tolerant genotype Nesser. Catalase activity diminished under heat stress in all genotypes. Peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), protease, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities increased under heat stress. Apparently, heat stress-induced reduction in catalase activity was compensated by a parallel increase in peroxidases to quench H 2O 2. Heat stress-induced decrease (%) in catalase and increase in protease activities showed significant positive correlations, whereas increase (%) in APX activity showed a significant negative correlation with HSI or relative heat tolerance of genotypes. All these correlations signify that catalase, protease and ascorbate peroxidase can be used efficiently as biochemical markers to assess the relative heat stress tolerance of wheat genotypes at the seedling stage. In conclusion, using a multiparametric approach involving morphophysiological and biochemical assays, the sensitivity of wheat genotypes to heat stress could be evaluated to a sufficient level of certainty at the seedling stage. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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