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Iqbal S.Z.,The University of Faisalabad | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology | Arino A.,University of Zaragoza
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance | Year: 2011

A total of 178 milk samples (94 of buffalo and 84 of cow) were randomly taken from Punjab and the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan (n = 89 in each province) and analysed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM 1) by HPLC-FLD. From Punjab about 46% of buffalo's and 49% of cow's milks were contaminated with AFM 1 as compared with 52% and 51% for milk samples from NWFP, respectively. Overall, the mean AFM 1 concentration was 0.046 μg kg -1 with a maximum of 0.350 μg kg -1. All samples complied with the Codex Alimentarius limit of 0.50 μg kg -1 for AFM 1 in milk, but 16.3% of samples exceeded the European Union maximum level of 0.05 μg kg -1. Another set of 415 buffalo's and cow's milk samples (213 morning milks and 202 evening milks) were analysed. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p & 0.05) between mean AFM 1 concentrations in milk during the morning (0.043 μg kg -1) and the evening (0.028 μg kg -1) lactation times. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Kazmi S.I.,Technical University of Delft | Ertsen M.W.,Technical University of Delft | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2012

Introduction of the large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in the late 19th century without a drainage system resulted in a rising water table, which resulted in water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem, the Pakistan government initiated installation of 10,000 tube wells in different areas. This not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the irrigation opportunities motivated framers to install private tube wells. The Punjab area meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tube wells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. The field work in the Lagar irrigated area, discussed in this paper, show that within the general picture of conjunctive use of canal water and groundwater, there is a clear spatial pattern between upstream and downstream areas, with upstream areas depending much less on groundwater than downstream areas. The irrigation context in the study area proves to be highly complex, with water users having differential access to canal and tube well water, resulting in different responses of farmers with their irrigation strategies, which in turn affect the salinity and water balances on the fields. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mahmood T.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology
Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

Contamination of lands with toxic heavy metals is a widespread environmental issue resulting from global industrialization. Conventional techniques for reclamation of such soils are expensive and environmental non-friendly. Phytoremediation is an emerging group of technologies utilizing green plants to clean up the environment from contaminants and has been offered as a cost-effective and non-invasive alternative to the conventional engineering-based remediation methods. There are different versions of phytoremediation viz. phytoimmobilization, phytostabilization, rhizofilteration, phytovolatilization and phytoextraction, the latter being most widely accepted for remediation of soils contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Different aspects of phytoextraction and scope of this technology for remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils are reviewed discussing challenges and opportunities in realizing phytoextraction as an economically viable remediation method. © 2010, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.

Iqbal S.Z.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology
Food Control | Year: 2013

The basic objective of this research was to investigate the incidence and occurrence of aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1) in milk and dairy products produced in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. Milk samples (107) and dairy products including yogurt (96), white cheese (119), cheese cream (150) and butter (74) samples were analyzed using High performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detector. The results have shown that AFM 1 was detected in 71% of milk samples with 58% samples were found above the permissible limit of European Union (EU). AFM 1 was detected in 61% of yogurt, 78% white cheese, 59% cheese cream and 45% butter samples with 47, 15, 11 and 52% samples of yogurt, white cheese, cheese cream and butter, respectively were found above the recommended limit of EU. The data of the present study will be helpful for the implementation of regulatory limit for AFB 1 in order to minimize or avoid AFM 1 in milk and milk products from Pakistan and also gives insights that whether the occurrence of AFM 1 in dairy products was considered as a possible risk for consumers health. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ahmad M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology | Arif M.I.,Central Cotton Research Institute
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

Field populations of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), from Pakistan were assessed for their resistance to the chlorinated hydrocarbon endosulfan, the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and quinalphos, and the pyrethroids cypermethrin, deltamethrin, bifenthrin and fenpropathrin. Using a leaf-dip bioassay, resistance to endosulfan was high during 1998-2000 but declined to very low, to low levels during 2001-2007, following a reduced use of the insecticide. Organophosphates and pyrethroids were consistently used over the past three decades, and the resistance had been increasing to these insecticide classes. Generally, the resistance to chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids remained low from 1998 to 2002-2003, but resistance increased to moderate to high levels from 2003-2004 to 2006-2007. For deltamethrin, resistance was very high during 2004-2007. Quinalphos resistance remained low during 1998-2006. Correlation analysis of LC50 and LC90 values showed a positive correlation between organophosphates and pyrethroids, but no correlation between endosulfan and organophosphates or pyrethroids tested herein. These results suggest that the conventional chemistries should be replaced with new chemistries for the successful management of S. exigua. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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