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PubMed | Bahauddin Zakariya University, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of AgricultureMultan, Islamia University of Bahawalpur and Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology Faisalabad
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2016

Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (

Iqbal S.Z.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Asi M.R.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology Faisalabad | Arino A.,University of Zaragoza | Akram N.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Zuber M.,Government College University at Faisalabad
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of aflatoxins in rice milling fractions and to estimate dietary intakes. A total of 413 rice samples (paddy 58, parboiled 69, brown 84, white 93, and broken 109) were analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results showed that 64 % paddy (16.35±1.67 μg/kg), 38 % parboiled (14.20±2.04 μg/kg), 33 % brown (9.85±1.25 μg/kg), 42 % white (7.10±1.39 μg/kg), and 50 % broken (8.5±1.71 μg/kg) rice samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. It was found that paddy rice was most contaminated with aflatoxins while white rice was least contaminated. The percentage of samples exceeding EU maximum contents for total aflatoxins in rice (4 μg/kg) varied from 14 to 36 % when compared to the analyzed rice fractions. The total estimated amount of aflatoxin intake for average rice consumers ranged from 19.1 to 26.6 ng/kg body weight/day, much higher than the reference value of 1 ng/kg body weight/day. This is the first report discovering that rice is a major contributor to the dietary intake of aflatoxins in Pakistan. © Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer 2012.

PubMed | National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Forman Christian College and Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology Faisalabad
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in microbiology | Year: 2015

Pakistan is among top three chickpea producing countries but the crop is usually grown on marginal lands without irrigation and fertilizer application which significantly hampers its yield. Soil fertility and inoculation with beneficial rhizobacteria play a key role in nodulation and yield of legumes. Four kabuli and six desi chickpea genotypes were, therefore, evaluated for inoculation response with IAA-producing Ochrobactrum ciceri Ca-34(T) and nitrogen fixing Mesorhizobium ciceri TAL-1148 in single and co-inoculation in two soils. The soil type 1 was previously unplanted marginal soil having low organic matter, P and N contents compared to soil type 2 which was a fertile routinely legume-cultivated soil. The effect of soil fertility status was pronounced and fertile soil on average, produced 31% more nodules, 62% more biomass and 111% grain yield than marginal soil. Inoculation either with O. ciceri alone or its co-inoculation with M. ciceri produced on average higher nodules (42%), biomass (31%), grains yield (64%) and harvest index (72%) in both chickpea genotypes over non-inoculated controls in both soils. Soil 1 showed maximum relative effectiveness of Ca-34(T) inoculation for kabuli genotypes while soil 2 showed for desi genotypes except B8/02. Desi genotype B8/02 in soil type 1 and Pb-2008 in soil type 2 showed significant yield increase as compared to respective un-inoculated controls. Across bacterial inoculation treatments, grain yield was positively correlated to growth and yield contributing parameters (r = 0.294(*) to 0.838(***) for desi and r = 0.388(*) to 0.857(**) for kabuli). PCA and CAT-PCA analyses clearly showed a site-specific response of genotype x bacterial inoculation. Furthermore, the inoculated bacterial strains were able to persist in the rhizosphere showing colonization on root and within nodules. Present study shows that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation should be integrated with national chickpea breading program in Pakistan especially for marginal soils. Furthermore, the study shows the potential of phytohormone producing strain Ca-34(T) as promising candidate for development of biofertilizer alongwith nodulating strains to get sustainable yield of kabuli and desi chickpea with minimum inputs at marginal land.

Hussain M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology Faisalabad | Azhar F.M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan A.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali Z.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Forty cotton genotypes were screened for their responses to cotton leaf curl virus symptoms through epidemiology in field and glasshouse, and grafting inoculation during 2001 and 2002. The CLCuD disease ratings, in glasshouse and field conditions, and grafting classified /categorized the variety NIAB-111 as highly resistant and the exotic genotypes NuCOTN-35B as highly susceptible parents. These two lines were hybridized to develop F1, F2, BCNu (back cross with NuCOTN-35B) and BCN1 (back cross with NIAB-111) generations to obtain information on the genetic basis of variation for CLCuD resistance through generation mean analysis. Additive-dominance model was found adequate, and the genes responsible for CLCuD resistance were, in general, dominant to their alleles responsible for CLCuD susceptibility. The narrow sense heritability (h2 NS) was moderately high for CLCuD resistance, which along with the estimates of heterosis and genetic advance suggested a potential for the development of breeding material having resistance to CLCuD. However, use of rigorous selection coupled with evaluation of the resistant plants selected from segregating material under higher viral load is suggested to develop CLCuD resistance in Gossypium hirsutum L.

PubMed | Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Islamabad, University of Agriculture at Faisalabad and Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology Faisalabad
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2015

Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program.

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