Newton, KS, United States


Newton, KS, United States
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Pontieri P.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Troisi J.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico Az Spec | Di Fiore R.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico Az Spec | Di Maro A.,The Second University of Naples | And 7 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2014

Mineral nutrients play a fundamental role in the biochemical and physiological functions of biological systems. Cereals may especially be an important source of essential minerals in view of their large daily intake both for human health and nutrition. Sorghum, among the cereals, is a major crop being used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral contents in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids, bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The seven hybrids were analyzed for grain ash and for minerals contents. Nutritionally, essential macro-, micro- and trace elements content were investigated. The analysis of essential elements was performed by mass spectrometry using a mix solution of internal isotopes standard. The results demonstrated that food-grade sorghum was characterized by high Mg, Fe and Zn content, high K:Na ratio and low Ca:P ratio, compared to other crops, due to the fact that the grain mineral contents of crop species are influenced by the effects of genotypes and environments. Significant variations in the essential elements content were found among the hybrids which allowed us to divide them into three distinct groups on the basis of their mineral profile by cluster analysis. These results are discussed with reference to the importance of minerals in human nutrition and suggest that, like wheat, it is possible to plan research programs for the improvement and selection of sorghum hybrids with high micronutrients content.

Pontieri P.,CNR Institute of Genetics and Biophysics Adriano Buzzati Traverso | Pontieri P.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics | di Fiore R.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico Azspec | Troisi J.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico Azspec | And 9 more authors.
Maydica | Year: 2011

The chemical composition and fatty acid content of both white sorghum hybrids and pure lines grown in various areas of the world were studied. Various attributes were investigated including moisture, protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat contents, and fatty acid composition. Slight variations in both protein and in fiber contents were observed among cultivars. Linoleic, oleic and palmitic were the most abundant fatty acids in all samples with little difference in their percentage content among the cultivars. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) demonstrated, for all sorghum flours analyzed, the absence of toxic protein sequences for celiac patients. The present results demonstrate that food-grade sorghum varieties are potentially able to be grown in Mediterranean countries in addition to regions where sorghum has been traditionally produced, i.e. either in arid tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa and Asia or in dry regions of America.

Pontieri P.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics | Pontieri P.,CNR Institute of Genetics and Biophysics Adriano Buzzati Traverso | Mamone G.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | De Caro S.,CNR Institute of Food Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Wheat (Triticum spp. L.), rye (Secale cereal L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds contain peptides toxic to celiac patients. Maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) are distant relatives of wheat as well as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and are known to be safe for celiacs. Both immunochemical studies and in vitro and in vivo challenge of wheat-free sorghum food products support this conclusion, although molecular evidence is missing. The goal of the present study was to provide biochemical and genetic evidence that sorghum is safe for celiac patients. In silico analysis of the recently published sorghum genome predicts that sorghum does not contain peptides that are toxic for celiac patients. Aqueous/alcohol-soluble prolamins (kafirins) from different sorghum varieties, including pure lines and hybrids, were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and HPLC analyses as well as an established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the R5 antibody. These analyses provide molecular evidence for the absence of toxic gliadin-like peptides in sorghum, confirming that sorghum can be definitively considered safe for consumption by people with celiac disease. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Pontieri P.,CNR Institute of Genetics and Biophysics Adriano Buzzati Traverso | Di Maro A.,The Second University of Naples | Tamburino R.,The Second University of Naples | De Stefano M.,The Second University of Naples | And 7 more authors.
Maydica | Year: 2010

Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropical areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa due to its good agronomic properties in harsh environments. At present, sorghum is widely found in the dry areas of Asia (India and China), the Americas and Australia. Due to its properties as a wheat-free food, interest is increasing in cultivating sorghum in Mediterranean countries. However, little is known about how the environment of Mediterranean countries would influence the chemical composition of sorghum. Thus, research has been conducted to compare the composition of selected food-grade white sorghum hybrids grown in Foggia (southern Italy) to hybrids grown in one of the primary sorghum growing regions of the US; Kansas. The sorghum grown in Italy were found to have a higher protein content than the sample grown in Kansas, though overall grain quality was comparable between the two regions. Immunosorbent assays (ELISA) showed for all sorghum flour samples analyzed, the absence of proteins that are toxic for celiac patients.

Pontieri P.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics | Pontieri P.,CNR Institute of Genetics and Biophysics Adriano Buzzati Traverso | de Vita P.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Boffa A.,CNR Institute of Plant Genetics | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2012

Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a gluten-free grain that is gaining attention as a food crop that can be used in the management of celiac disease. At present, sorghum is widely grown in many semiarid regions of the world. New food-grade sorghum cultivars are of particular interest in Mediterranean countries due to improved quality characteristics and gluten-free status of the grains. Until now very few studies have examined the grain yield (GYLD) and agronomic performance characteristics of food-grade sorghum hybrids in Italy. A 2 year study was conducted to evaluate the agronomic performance of eight food-grade sorghum hybrids representing different maturity classes in trials conducted in Southern Italy. The results showed wide variation in adaptation of these hybrids as measured by differences in GYLD (2.35-8.50 t ha -1) and other pheno-morphological characteristics. Of particular interest was the fact that many of the early-flowering hybrids (e.g. SP-X303) performed better than the later-flowering hybrids (e.g. ArchX-02). These results demonstrated that flowering time of hybrid and crop cycle length are important factors to consider in selecting cultivars for production in the Mediterranean region. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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