nter For Pg Studies Autonomous

Puducherry, India

nter For Pg Studies Autonomous

Puducherry, India
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Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Mukilarasi V.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Nanda A.,Sathyabama University
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2015

Cassia alata belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. Leaf extract of this plant have been reported that it posses medicinal property and used against ringworm, scabies, ulcers and other skin disease such as pruritis, eczema and itching. Many reports are available on the antimicrobial activity of the plant extracts. The aim of the present work was to estimate the antibacterial activity of the of leaf extract of Cassia alata produced by soxhlet extraction method. The solvent selected for this study was hydro-alcohol. The plant extract was tested against pathogenic gram positive and negative bacterial strains viz., Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens by agar disc diffusion method. The concentration was made as 5μl, 10μl and 20μl to check the bacterial growth and the activity was found good with the high concentration. It was also compared with standard antibiotics (Rifamycin, Amoxyclav).This study showed that the plant extract comparatively work better than the standard drug, Amoxyclav in order to control the pathogenic bacteria.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Anandhu R.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research | Year: 2017

Aim: Variety of phylloplane and endophytic fungi is used to imitate as one of the rich source of novel compounds of biological accomplishments and have a high level of organizational diversity on the leaf surfaces. Bioactive composites produced by these phylloplane and endophytes have shown inspiring potentiality towards therapeutic medicine, for which it is necessary to appreciate and employ this important microbial resource and make it more valuable for the wellbeing of mankind. During the present study, isolation and enumeration of phylloplane (ectophytic) and endophytic fungal species was carried out from one medicinal plant, Avicennia marina collected from marine mangrove environments of Puducherry coast. Methods: During the study, two methodologies viz., moist chamber and direct agar plate methods were used for the isolation and enumeration of phylloplane and endophytic fungi. Results & Discussion: Altogether, 25 fungal species of 13 genera were isolated from the mangrove plant, Avicennia marina. Among the isolated fungi, Aspergillus niger, Cochilobolus victoria, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata, Drechslera sp., Glomerella sp. Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. oxalicum, Phoma sp., Sordaria sp. White sterile mycelia were found common in both phylloplane and endophytes. Moist chamber method was found suitable to record more number of fungi than agar plate method. The host relative preference and tissue specification evidence was found between the phylloplane and endophytes based on the fungal community distribution and composition. © 2016 Pharmainfo Publications. All rights reserved.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2015

Fungal spores are unanimous in distribution i.e., present is both outdoors and indoors of different environment and constitute the major portion of the suspended bioparticulate matter in the air. They are dispersed in a very high concentration and hence remain in the air for an extended period of time. An aeromycological survey of present study, indoors and outdoors of various temples in Pondicherry city was carried out by employing Burkard’s volumetric sampler on agar plates. Air samplings were made at the intervals of one week isolating the prevalent fungi from the study sites in between 10 AM to 11 AM from January to March (2015). Altogether, 12 fungal species under 8 genera were isolated, among which Cladosporium spp were recorded as the dominant followed by Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp. The prevalence of spores was found more inside the temple in comparison to outside environment. Besides these fungi, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and sterile mycelia were also recorded. The analysis of data indicated that concentration of airborne fungi in the two sites of indoor and outdoor of the temple is moderate and quite variable depending on the climatic conditions and substrate availability. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All right reserved.


Kumar Nayak B.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2015

Isolation and enumeration of endophytic fungi from different leaf samples viz., young, mature, dry, yellow and infected of Ziziphus mauritiana was carried out in the Microbiology laboratory, K. M. Centre for P. G. Studies (Autonomous), Pondicherry during 2011. Agar plate and moist chamber techniques were used to isolate the endophytic fungi. During the study period, a total of 16 fungi were isolated under 10 genera from both agar plate and moist chamber method of which, 13 species of 10 genera were from Agar plate and 13 species of 9 genera were from moist chamber. Incidence of endophytic fungi isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana in agar plate was less than moist chamber. It was found that, white sterile mycelia was recorded in all the leaf samples starting from young to infected of the medicinal plant Ziziphus mauritiana. In agar plate technique, Aspergilli, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium citrinum, white sterile mycelia, Curvularia lunata, gray sterile mycelia were recorded from all the leaf samples. In moist chamber, Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium sp., Humicola sp. and white sterile mycelia were recorded in all the leaf samples. It showed that infected and yellow leaves of the plant harboured maximum number of endophytic fungi followed by mature and young leaves. Moist chamber method was suitable to isolate and record the endophytic fungi correctly in comparison to agar plate method. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Anitha K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2015

The research in the field of nanotechnology has grown rapidly over the past few years and has even ventured into the new field of therapeutic medicine. Of all kinds of nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) seem to have attracted the most interests in terms of their potential application. In recent years, metal nanoparticles are explored in order to find a new approach to kill resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the metal of choice for antibiotic resistance microbes. Synthesis of AgNPs through biological way is considered to be a green approach in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, an eco-friendly process for the synthesis of nanomaterials using two fungal strains has been attempted. Two species of Aspergillus viz., A. ochraceus and A. sydowii were used for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. These AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Xray Diffraction (XRD). The nanoparticles exhibited maximum absorbance peak at 430 and 422nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy and the XRD analysis showed the diffraction peak of the values at 32, 38, 44, 46, and 64. In this study, the biosynthesis of AgNPs was carried out using two fungal species of Aspergillus isolated from coastal sand dune of Puducherry coastal area. A comparative study was done among these two species in order to analyze their nanoparticle characterization as well as the antibiotic efficacy against bacterial pathogens. The nanoparticle of both species showed antimicrobial activity towards certain gram positive and gram negative bacteria and also showed enhanced activity by combined with antibiotic Vancomycin.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Anitha K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2015

Now a day researchers find metallic nanoparticles as a good antimicrobial agent; especially silver nanoparticle, which plays a major role due to its wide application in various fields. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by biological method is found to be easy and cost effective. So the Green synthesis has major importance in the study of nanoparticle synthesis, rather than chemical and physical approaches. In recent years the development of resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria against antibiotics are found to be an environmental problem. So the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from various microorganisms is carrying out by researchers in order to act over these resistant pathogens by biological way. In this study, the biosynthesis of AgNPs was carried out using two fungal species viz., Aspergillus ochraceus and A. sydowii isolated from coastal sand dune of Puducherry coastal area. A comparative study was made among these two species regarding their nanoparticle characterization as well as the antibiotic efficacy over the pathogens. The silver nanoparticle formation was monitored by UV-spectrophotometer and X-ray diffraction method. The nanoparticle of both species showed antimicrobial activity towards the certain gram positive and gram negative bacteria and also showed enhanced activity by combined with antibiotic Ampicillin.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Nanda A.,Sathyabama University
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2014

Antimicrobial resistant becomes a major factor virtually in all hospitals acquired infection may soon be untreatable; it leads to cause serious public health problem. These concerns have led to major research effort to discover alternative strategies for the treatment of bacterial infection. Nanobiotechnology is an upcoming and fast developing field with potential application for human welfare. In the recent scenario, progress in nano-biotechnology research has made a great development particularly in the field of medicine based on metallic nanoparticles with antibacterial property to combat the pathogenic bacteria, who are resistance to varied antibiotics. Silver nanoparticles have their own advantages in order to kill the microbes effectively. In the present study, we have reported the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from airborne saprophytic fungus; Aspergillus sp. isolated from the indoors of our laboratory. Bioreduction of Ag+ was observed when fungal extract was augmented with AgNO3 and kept at different reaction conditions (temperature and pH). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance as determined by UV-Vis spectra at 425nm. These AgNPs were found to possess potential antibacterial activity against various gram +/- bacterial pathogens. Biological approach of airborne wild fungus would be the novel way towards the development of safe, cost effective and environmental friendly method for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and thus synthesized AgNPs would be used in several areas of medicine. © 2014 Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Lazar J.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2014

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Cayratia pedata (Vitaceae) against two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus).In order to carry out this work, fresh and healthy leaves of Cayratia pedata Lam.were collected and extracted in solvents like water, petroleum ether and methanol and screened for antimicrobial activity. The bacteria were maintained in Nutrient agar slopes and fungi on PDA medium. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the plant extract was tested using well diffusion method. It was shown that the pathogens studied were found to be sensitive to the plant extracts. The inhibition was more in methanol extracts than the aqueous and n-butanol extracts in bacteria and fungi. The tested microbes varied in their sensitivity to the various solvent extracts of the leaf of Cayratia pedata. From the Clinical Editor: In this study, Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the plant extract was tested and it was shown that the pathogens studied were found to be sensitive to the plant extract. The inhibition was more in methanol extracts than the aqueous and n-butanol extracts in bacteria and fungi. © 2014 Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Anitha K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2014

In day today life, pathogenic microbes are found to be more resistance to broad spectrum antibioticscauses major health dysfunctions. Silver is used in different forms like metallic silver and silver nitrate to treat burns, wounds and several bacterial infections to get relief. In our present study, the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was made from a marine fungus; Aspergillus ochraceus. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced from A. ochraceus showed the maximum absorbance at 420nm on UV-spectrophotometer. Size of the nanoparticles was measured in between 30nm to 40nm. Silver nanoparticles showed good antimicrobial activity against the bacterial pathogens studied but combined formulation with antibiotics viz., vancomycin andampicillin, the biosynthesized nanoparticles from Aspergillus ochraceus enhanced the antimicrobial potency of the antibiotics at 3 fold rates against S. aureus followed by 1 fold rates against Bacillus cereus and S. aureus. The antibacterial efficacy of antibiotics was enhanced in the presence of silver nanoparticle against the test organisms.From the Clinical Editor: In the present study, the sand dune fungus; Aspergillus ochraceus was employed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is a mold species, widely distributed, found in soil and decaying matter, which produces the toxin “Ochratoxin” is one of the most abundant foods contaminating mycotoxin. The efficacy of two antibiotics was found to be increased against the pathogens while combined with AgNPs synthesized by A. ochraceus. © 2014, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

A comparative study pertaining to isolation and enumeration of endophytic fungi from young, mature, yellow, dry and infected leaf samples of a medicinal plant, Andrographis paniculata was carried out in the Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, K. M. Centre for P. G. Studies (Autonomous), Pondicherry, India. Agar plate and moist chamber methods were used to isolate the endophytic fungi. In Andrographis paniculata, altogether 23 fungal species were isolated under 17 genera from both Agar plate and moist chamber methods. Of which 15 species of 14 genera were recorded from Agar plate and 13 species of 12 genera were recorded from moist chamber. It was found that the Botrytis cinerea was recorded in all the leaf samples started from young to infected (except yellow in Agar) of the medicinal plant. In Agar plate, Botrytis cinerea, Wallemia sebi, White sterile mycelia were recorded maximum in all the leaf samples. In Moist chamber, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea were recorded in all the leaf samples starting from young to infected. Most of the fungal species were found in all the leaf samples viz., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Wallemia sebi, White sterile mycelia, Botrytis cinerea, Cercospora heteromella, Curvularia lunata and Trichoderma sp. The fungi like Aspergillus niger, Cercospora heteromella, Curvularia lunata were predominant in the Moist chamber method. Agar plate method was found suitable to isolate and record the endophytic fungi correctly in comparison to moist chamber method. The similarity coefficient value was 50% in between the moist chamber and agar plate methods based on their fungal diversity and common number species. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

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