Puducherry, India
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Nanda A.,Sathyabama University | Majeed S.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Abdullah M.S.B.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2015

During the present study, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was made by using the filamentous fungus, Penicillium citrinum isolated from the soil sample of an industrial area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Fungal biomass was aerobically grown and fungal cell filtrate was challenged with1mM of AgNo3 resulted in the change of color solution indicated the formation of silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were confirmed by UVSpectrophotometric analysis and further analyzed by AFM study, which determined the particle size and average roughness. X ray diffraction (XRD) analysis determined the metallic nature of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were checked for antibacterial efficacy alone and along with Ciprofloxacin which showed that these nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial activity of Ciprofloxacin against some bacterial pathogens.


Chitra N.,Sathyabama University | Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Nanda A.,Sathyabama University
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015

Occurrence in concentration and composition of airborne fungal isolates with their seasonality in indoor and outdoor environments of a working environment of Vaniyambadi city of Tamilnadu was carried out by Burkard's volumetric sampler on agar plates from January to December 2012. During the study period, the fungal spores considerably varied from indoors to outdoors as well as from season to season both in concentration and composition. It was found that indoors had more numbers of fungal spores in comparison to outdoors in the environments. Incidence of fungal species was predominated with more number of propagules during mid winter months like December, January and February in comparison to other months. Aspergilli were predominant in working area followed by penicilli and cladosporia. Fruit deteriorating fungi like Alternaria, Curvularia, Geotrichum and Trichothecium were recorded in the current study. Aspergillus spp was also found with the highest frequency and had the maximum contributed members i.e., Aspergillus flavipes, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. Niger, A. terreus and A. ustus. Of the 28 isolated fungal taxa, indoor air distributed with 25 species and outdoor air with 19 species. Seasonal occurrence recorded that the winter was the maximum spore load in the working environments followed by rainy and summer seasons. Statistical significance of fungal spores between indoors and outdoors was found non significance difference in their means at peH0.05 level with the acceptance of null hypothesis. Meteorological parameters were found to control the fungal spores in the environment confirmed by Pearson's correlation analysis.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Nanda A.,Sathyabama University
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2014

Antimicrobial resistant becomes a major factor virtually in all hospitals acquired infection may soon be untreatable; it leads to cause serious public health problem. These concerns have led to major research effort to discover alternative strategies for the treatment of bacterial infection. Nanobiotechnology is an upcoming and fast developing field with potential application for human welfare. In the recent scenario, progress in nano-biotechnology research has made a great development particularly in the field of medicine based on metallic nanoparticles with antibacterial property to combat the pathogenic bacteria, who are resistance to varied antibiotics. Silver nanoparticles have their own advantages in order to kill the microbes effectively. In the present study, we have reported the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from airborne saprophytic fungus; Aspergillus sp. isolated from the indoors of our laboratory. Bioreduction of Ag+ was observed when fungal extract was augmented with AgNO3 and kept at different reaction conditions (temperature and pH). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance as determined by UV-Vis spectra at 425nm. These AgNPs were found to possess potential antibacterial activity against various gram +/- bacterial pathogens. Biological approach of airborne wild fungus would be the novel way towards the development of safe, cost effective and environmental friendly method for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and thus synthesized AgNPs would be used in several areas of medicine. © 2014 Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Lazar J.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2014

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Cayratia pedata (Vitaceae) against two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus).In order to carry out this work, fresh and healthy leaves of Cayratia pedata Lam.were collected and extracted in solvents like water, petroleum ether and methanol and screened for antimicrobial activity. The bacteria were maintained in Nutrient agar slopes and fungi on PDA medium. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the plant extract was tested using well diffusion method. It was shown that the pathogens studied were found to be sensitive to the plant extracts. The inhibition was more in methanol extracts than the aqueous and n-butanol extracts in bacteria and fungi. The tested microbes varied in their sensitivity to the various solvent extracts of the leaf of Cayratia pedata. From the Clinical Editor: In this study, Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the plant extract was tested and it was shown that the pathogens studied were found to be sensitive to the plant extract. The inhibition was more in methanol extracts than the aqueous and n-butanol extracts in bacteria and fungi. © 2014 Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous | Anitha K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2014

In day today life, pathogenic microbes are found to be more resistance to broad spectrum antibioticscauses major health dysfunctions. Silver is used in different forms like metallic silver and silver nitrate to treat burns, wounds and several bacterial infections to get relief. In our present study, the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was made from a marine fungus; Aspergillus ochraceus. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced from A. ochraceus showed the maximum absorbance at 420nm on UV-spectrophotometer. Size of the nanoparticles was measured in between 30nm to 40nm. Silver nanoparticles showed good antimicrobial activity against the bacterial pathogens studied but combined formulation with antibiotics viz., vancomycin andampicillin, the biosynthesized nanoparticles from Aspergillus ochraceus enhanced the antimicrobial potency of the antibiotics at 3 fold rates against S. aureus followed by 1 fold rates against Bacillus cereus and S. aureus. The antibacterial efficacy of antibiotics was enhanced in the presence of silver nanoparticle against the test organisms.From the Clinical Editor: In the present study, the sand dune fungus; Aspergillus ochraceus was employed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is a mold species, widely distributed, found in soil and decaying matter, which produces the toxin “Ochratoxin” is one of the most abundant foods contaminating mycotoxin. The efficacy of two antibiotics was found to be increased against the pathogens while combined with AgNPs synthesized by A. ochraceus. © 2014, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Nayak B.K.,nter For Pg Studies Autonomous
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

A comparative study pertaining to isolation and enumeration of endophytic fungi from young, mature, yellow, dry and infected leaf samples of a medicinal plant, Andrographis paniculata was carried out in the Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, K. M. Centre for P. G. Studies (Autonomous), Pondicherry, India. Agar plate and moist chamber methods were used to isolate the endophytic fungi. In Andrographis paniculata, altogether 23 fungal species were isolated under 17 genera from both Agar plate and moist chamber methods. Of which 15 species of 14 genera were recorded from Agar plate and 13 species of 12 genera were recorded from moist chamber. It was found that the Botrytis cinerea was recorded in all the leaf samples started from young to infected (except yellow in Agar) of the medicinal plant. In Agar plate, Botrytis cinerea, Wallemia sebi, White sterile mycelia were recorded maximum in all the leaf samples. In Moist chamber, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea were recorded in all the leaf samples starting from young to infected. Most of the fungal species were found in all the leaf samples viz., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Wallemia sebi, White sterile mycelia, Botrytis cinerea, Cercospora heteromella, Curvularia lunata and Trichoderma sp. The fungi like Aspergillus niger, Cercospora heteromella, Curvularia lunata were predominant in the Moist chamber method. Agar plate method was found suitable to isolate and record the endophytic fungi correctly in comparison to moist chamber method. The similarity coefficient value was 50% in between the moist chamber and agar plate methods based on their fungal diversity and common number species. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

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