nstituto Universitario

Lisbon, Portugal

nstituto Universitario

Lisbon, Portugal
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Campioni L.,nstituto Universitario | Granadeiro J.P.,University of Lisbon | Catry P.,nstituto Universitario
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2017

In long-lived species with delayed maturity, prebreeders are expected to gather information by visiting and sampling the quality of potential nesting areas (prospecting), before they choose where to breed. In most seabirds, this process is important because, once recruited, individuals generally remain site-faithful throughout their long reproductive life. As many seabirds are believed to display low levels of natal dispersal, it is possible that natal philopatry is an obligate strategy for most individuals, with prospecting being a negligible activity during the prebreeding stage. Using ringing information and GPS technology, we tracked breeding adults and prebreeder black-browed albatrosses, Thalassarche melanophris, from a colony of the Falkland Islands, during the breeding season. Breeding adults rarely engaged in prospecting, whereas prebreeders showed a high propensity to visit other colonies. Most prebreeders started prospecting ashore when 4–5 years old and most of the younger individuals prospected more than one breeding colony, with some prospecting up to five colonies in just 9 days. Prospecting activity did not differ between males and females and rapidly declined as prebreeders aged, by which time individuals had probably already selected their future nesting site. Nestling body mass at 60 days of age and hatching date did not influence prospecting behaviour later in life. Prospecting was mostly directed at colonies within 10 km from the natal place, but occurred regularly up to 55–65 km. While distance from the natal place was a strong predictor of the probability of a colony being prospected, colony size and growth rate were not. Our results provide new insights into the role of prospecting in the process of recruitment, showing that even for highly philopatric birds, recruitment to the natal colony (or to another nesting site) has the potential to be informed, not done blindly. © 2017 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

Ferreira M.,nstituto Universitario | Aguiar C.,Instituto Universitario Of Lisbon Iscte Iul | Correia N.,Instituto Universitario Of Lisbon Iscte Iul | Fialho M.,Instituto Universitario Of Lisbon Iscte Iul | Pimentel J.S.,nstituto Universitario
Journal of Early Intervention | Year: 2017

Based on peer sociometric reports, we examined how number of friendships, social acceptance, and characteristics of social networks vary as a function of disability profile. We also investigated teachers’ awareness of the sociometric status of young children with disabilities. Participants were 86 children with disabilities (63 boys) enrolled in inclusive preschool classrooms of the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon, Portugal (Mage = 67.33 months, SD = 10.54). Findings suggest that children with severe or sociobehavioral disabilities may be at increased risk of social rejection and isolation, having fewer friends and lower social network centrality than children with mild disabilities. Low agreement between teachers’ classifications of the social status of children with disabilities and classifications based on peer nominations raises concerns about their awareness of processes of social rejection and neglect. Findings highlight the need for interventions to support positive social experiences at the dyadic and group levels in Portuguese inclusive preschool classrooms. © 2016, © 2016 SAGE Publications.

Carvalho C.,nstituto Universitario
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis | Year: 2013

The Portuguese version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) was administered to 313 Portuguese college students. Score distribution, item pass rates, item analysis, and reliability of the HGSHS:A are presented and compared to earlier published reference samples. No differences were found between males and females. Reliability of the HGSHS:A Portuguese version was lower than that reported by most of the studies but within the range of the non-English versions. In general, Portuguese data are congruent with the reference samples and the Portuguese translation of the HGSHS:A. It appears to be a viable instrument for primary screening of hypnotic suggestibility in a Portuguese context. © 2013 Copyright International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis.

Coelho J.P.,CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental | Coelho J.P.,University of Aveiro | Monteiro R.J.R.,CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental | Monteiro R.J.R.,University of Aveiro | And 10 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2016

This work evaluates the mercury (Hg) contamination status (sediments and biota) of the Bijagós archipelago, off the coast of Guinea-Bissau. Sediments exhibited very low concentrations (< 1–12 ng g−1), pointing to negligible sources of anthropogenic Hg in the region. Nevertheless, Hg is well correlated to the fine fraction, aluminium, and loss on ignition, indicating the effect of grain size and organic matter content on the presence of Hg in sediments. Mercury in the bivalves Tagelus adansoni and Senilia senilis did not vary considerably among sites, ranging within narrow intervals (0.09–0.12 and 0.12–0.14 μg g−1 (dry weight), respectively). Divergent substrate preferences/feeding tactics may justify slight differences between species. The value 11 ng g−1 is proposed as the sediment background concentration for this West-African coastal region, and concentrations within the interval 8–10 ng g−1 (wet weight) may be considered as reference range for S. senilis and T. adansoni in future monitoring studies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Luis A.R.,nstituto Universitario | Luis A.R.,Projecto Delfimcentro Portugues Of Estudo Dos Mamiferos Marinhos | Couchinho M.N.,nstituto Universitario | Couchinho M.N.,Projecto Delfimcentro Portugues Of Estudo Dos Mamiferos Marinhos | And 2 more authors.
Acta Ethologica | Year: 2015

Whistles are key elements in the acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins. In this species, the frequency contours of whistles are used as individual signatures. Assessing the long-lasting stability of such stereotyped signals, and the abundant production of non-stereotyped whistles in the wild, is relevant to a more complete understanding of their biological function. Additionally, studying the effects of group size and activity patterns on whistle emission rate may provide insights into the use of these calls. In this study, we document the decades-long occurrence of whistles with stereotyped frequency contours in a population of wild bottlenose dolphins, resident in the region of the Sado estuary, Portugal. Confirmed stereotypy throughout more than 20 years, and positive identification using the signature identification (SIGID) criteria, suggests that the identified stereotyped whistles are in fact signature whistles. The potential roles of non-stereotyped whistles, which represent 68 % of all whistles recorded, are still unclear and should be further investigated. Emission rates were significantly higher during food-related events. Finally, our data show a comparatively high overall whistle production for this population, and no positive correlation between group size and emission rates, suggesting social or environmental restriction mechanisms in vocal production. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ISPA

Teles M.C.,nstituto Universitario | Teles M.C.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Ciencia | Almeida O.,nstituto Universitario | Almeida O.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Ciencia | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

According to the social decision-making (SDM) network hypothesis, SDM is encoded in a network of forebrain and midbrain structures in a distributed and dynamic fashion, such that the expression of a given social behaviour is better reflected by the overall profile of activation across the different loci rather than by the activity of a single node. This proposal has the implicit assumption that SDM relies on integration across brain regions, rather than on regional specialization. Here we tested the occurrence of functional localization and of functional connectivity in the SDM network. For this purpose we used zebrafish to map different social behaviour states into patterns of neuronal activity, as indicated by the expression of the immediate early genes c-fos and egr-1, across the SDM network. The results did not support functional localization, as some loci had similar patterns of activity associated with different social behaviour states, and showed socially driven changes in functional connectivity. Thus, this study provides functional support to the SDM network hypothesis and suggests that the neural context in which a given node of the network is operating (i.e. the state of its interconnected areas) is central to its functional relevance. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Neto M.P.,ZoomarinePortugal | Silveira M.,ZoomarinePortugal | dos Santos M.E.,nstituto Universitario
Zoo Biology | Year: 2016

Enrichment programs may contribute to the quality of life and stress reduction in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and aquaria. The results of these programs are generally positive in terms of welfare, but the magnitude of their effects may vary greatly between individuals of the same species, especially when the enrichment plans are based on the introduction of manipulative objects. Some animals will interact spontaneously with novel objects, even without food rewards and in the absence of the trainers, while others show no interest or even aversion toward the objects. To determine if formal training can improve these conditions, we measured the effects of an operant conditioning program in the manipulation of objects by dolphins that initially avoided them. This program took place between April and October 2013 at Zoomarine Portugal. Subjects were two female and two male bottlenose dolphins (adults with ages from 17 to 35 years) that after a preliminary analysis showed avoidance or low interest in the manipulation of various toys. The level of interaction with introduced enrichment objects was observed before and after formal training to explore the toys (sixteen 20-min observation sessions per animal “before” and “after training”). In all subjects, an index of interest in object manipulation, in the absence of trainers, increased significantly after the application of the training techniques. The results show that an initial reinforcement program focused on the manipulation of toys may overcome resistance, improving the effects of environmental enrichment plans, and it is a potentially useful strategy to increase the welfare of some captive animals. Zoo Biol. 35:210–215, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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