Orlando, FL, United States
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Chang C.C.,University of Louisville | Krishnan L.,University of Louisville | Nunes S.S.,University of Louisville | Church K.H.,nScrypt, Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2012

Objective-: During neovascularization, the end result is a new functional microcirculation composed of a network of mature microvessels with specific topologies. Although much is known concerning the mechanisms underlying the initiation of angiogenesis, it remains unclear how the final architecture of microcirculatory beds is regulated. To begin to address this, we determined the impact of angiogenic neovessel prepatterning on the final microvascular network topology using a model of implant neovascularization. Methods and Results-: We used 3D direct-write bioprinting or physical constraints in a manner permitting postangiogenesis vascular remodeling and adaptation to pattern angiogenic microvascular precursors (neovessels formed from isolated microvessel segments) in 3D collagen gels before implantation and subsequent network formation. Neovasculatures prepatterned into parallel arrays formed functional networks after 4 weeks postimplantation but lost the prepatterned architecture. However, maintenance of uniaxial physical constraints during postangiogenesis remodeling of the implanted neovasculatures produced networks with aligned microvessels, as well as an altered proportional distribution of arterioles, capillaries, and venules. Conclusion-: Here we show that network topology resulting from implanted microvessel precursors is independent from prepatterning of precursors but can be influenced by a patterning stimulus involving tissue deformation during postangiogenesis remodeling and maturation. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Chen X.,nScrypt, Inc. | Church K.,nScrypt, Inc. | Yang H.,DuPont Company
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2010

This work presents a non-contact high speed printing technology for patterning high aspect ratio fine grid lines for the front side metallization of crystallized silicon solar cells. The approach of achieving fine line printing with high aspect ratio was obtained by combining focused work of both material and process together. A modified silver paste was directly patterned by a one-step process onto the silicon wafers without using a screen mask and the line width was as small as 50μm, while the height was around 30μm after firing. The preliminary study of these printed cells showed up to a 0.5% efficiency increase by effectively reducing the shading area while maintaining high grid line conductivity and low contact resistance. © 2010 IEEE.

Smith C.M.,nScrypt, Inc. | Roy T.D.,nScrypt, Inc. | Bhalkikar A.,University of Central Florida | Li B.,nScrypt, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Tissue Engineering - Part A | Year: 2010

Intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses may be able to overcome the problems that stem from the nonuniform distribution of pressure seen in the conventional stump-socket prosthetic replacement devices. Transcutaneous devices have had limited success in amputees. By optimizing the attachment of the skin to the prosthetic, intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses may become clinically viable options. This report details studies evaluating the development of a modified titanium construct with a specially machined surface to increase the adherence of tissue as well as scaffold. A computer-aided biology tool was used to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with a specific three-dimensional architecture. To extrude the PCL, it was dissolved in acetic acid to produce a 70% PCL liquid. A scaffold with a porosity of >50% was fabricated to have a tensile strength similar to skin. The presence of a specially machined surface greatly increased the adhesion of the PCL scaffold to the titanium constructs. When the 70% PCL was properly neutralized by heating at 55°C and washing in 90% ethanol (EtOH), there was only a decrease (10%) in the viability of cells seeded onto the PCL constructs when compared with the cells in culture. The antibacterial properties of titanium dioxide anatase, silver nanoparticles, and chlorhexidine diacetate mixed in either type I collagen or hyaluronic acid (HA) were assessed. The addition of 1% (w/w) chlorhexidine diacetate in HA resulted in a 71% decrease in bacteria seen in nontreated HA. These results show promise in developing a novel engineered titanium and PCL construct that promotes effective adhesion between the titanium-skin interface. Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Deffenbaugh P.I.,University of Texas at El Paso | Rumpf R.C.,University of Texas at El Paso | Church K.H.,University of Texas at El Paso | Church K.H.,nScrypt, Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2013

3-D printing allows increased design flexibility in the fabrication of microwave circuits and devices and is reaching a level of maturity that allows for functional parts. Little is known about the RF and microwave properties of the standard materials that have been developed for 3-D printing. This paper measures a wide variety of materials over a broad spectrum of frequencies from 1 MHz to 10 GHz using a variety of well-established measurement methods. © 2013 IEEE.

Chen X.,nScrypt, Inc. | Church K.,nScrypt, Inc. | Yang H.,DuPont Company | Cooper I.B.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Rohatgi A.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2011

This work presents a direct printing technology and an enabling tool for forming very fine gridlines with high aspect ratios that improve the front side metallization of silicon solar cells. The parallel printing setup is anticipated to print each cell in two seconds. The conductive gridlines were formed by a one-step non-contact approach at high speeds using a modified standard screen printable paste. The line width is as small as 40μm, and the line thickness is more than 30μm after firing. The front shading area is significantly reduced, and a previous study has demonstrated up to 0.5% absolute cell efficiency increase as compared to the screen-printing process baseline when the same grid pattern was used. Due to further reduction of grid line width, the pitch between each grid line increases, which affects the travel distance of the electrons excited by photon interaction, which affects the fill factor and ultimately the efficiency of the cell. In addition to the previous comparison study of wafers using the same grid pattern, this study investigated the cell performance using a modified gridline pattern that has an increased number of gridlines. The results showed an absolute efficiency increase up to 0.7%. Other electrical attributes of direct printed high aspect ratio gridlines in terms of I SC, V OC, FF and other data are also presented. © 2011 IEEE.

A method for manufacturing an electronic circuit in three-dimensional space provides for interconnecting electronic components within the circuit by directly writing conducting lines. The method may include observing a direct writing tool of a direct write system using a vision system, determining proper placement of the direct writing tool at least partially based on the step of observing, and directly writing conducting lines in three dimensions using the proper placement. The direct writing may be on a surface or in free space. The method may include stacking a plurality of chips to provide a stack having a top surface and edges extending away from the top and interconnecting connections of the chips by directly writing conducting lines along one of the edges.

Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.93K | Year: 2011

The proposed effort will make a dramatic improvement in a) size, weight and power based on a transformative approach to manufacturer 3D electronics as well as 2) ease of integration by exploiting standards efforts in the Space community and specifically CubeSat. The most significant contribution we will make is in next generation packaging through the use of Additive Manufacturing of Structural Electronics. The concept of "Plug and Play" implies simple and compatible, but it also implies traditional modular packaging for a specific form factor. By eliminating solder, wire bonds, connector, excess silicon and excess substrate, the possibility exists to shrink an electronic system by more than 100 times. This 100 fold shrinkage will apply to both size and weight and the newly available volume could be applied to power generation and storage. By extending the plug and play concept to "3D Print and Play"Â? in which entire satellites will be fabricated layer-by-layer into a monolithic, intelligent, conformal structure. Consequently, the development time is radically reduced, not from "months to days" but rather "days to hours," by automating the manufacturing component of development.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 98.99K | Year: 2010

The nScrypt/UTEP team proposes to develop a revolutionary 3Df monolithic cyber manufacturing process that holds great promise for transforming printed manufacturing. This new approach of cyber manufacturing leverages and pushes the limits of graphical design and digital additive manufacturing. We are truly in the digital age in which the youth are savvy with digital technology. Through the latest iPod to the most advanced cyber gaming, the youth in the U.S. can visualize in 3D, move through virtual space and manage communication and data all through the latest digital gadget. These are the next generation designers and manufacturers. A cyber design and manufacturing system is well suited for the generation to follow. The 3Df manufacturing system will fabricate based on the mission requirements of the customer. Since this technology will be cyber based, the design can occur in one location while the manufacturing can occur elsewhere. Ideally, this capability enables the DoD to build anywhere, build anytime and build anything.

nScrypt, Inc. | Date: 2015-07-29

An apparatus for use in 3D fabrication includes a heat sink, a melt tube extending through the heat sink, the melt tube having a first end and an opposite second end and adapted for melting filament or other material as the material is conveyed from the first end to the second end, a pen tip having an opening therein for ejecting melted material, the pen tip at the second end of the melt tube, and a pen tip holder for securely holding the pen tip during printing, the pen tip holder having a heater element associated therewith.

nScrypt, Inc. | Date: 2013-01-31

A method of building a three dimensional (3D) structure includes micro-dispensing a layer comprising a material using a syringe-based micro-dispensing tool, curing the layer, and repeating the steps of micro-dispensing and curing a plurality of times in order to build the three-dimensional structure. The material may be loaded with nano to micron sized particles, tubes, or strings.

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