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Kirmayer L.J.,McGill University | Kirmayer L.J.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Dandeneau S.,University of Quebec at Montreal | Marshall E.,NS Solar Material Co. | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011

The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.

Ellis D.D.,NS Solar Material Co.
Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics | Year: 2013

Reverberation measurements were made in the Gulf of Mexico off Panama City, Florida, USA in April 2012 in preparation for the main Target and Reverberation Experiment (TREX) in May 2013. The data were gathered using the triplet section of the ONR Five Octave Research Array (FORA), deployed as a fixed receiver. By steering cardioid beams to the right or left the array can reduce ambiguity. Beamformed data from the 2012 trial show background noise with high directionality and variability due to nearby shipping. Model predictions of reverberation and target are compared with data using a range-dependent Clutter Model, which uses adiabatic normal modes as the computational engine. The initial predictions use isovelocity water, over a sandy bottom halfspace with Lambert scattering, and bathymetry from the GEBCO 08 database. These initial results will be presented, hopefully supplemented by improved predictions with better environmental inputs and additional clutter data obtained during the May 2013 experiment. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Matthews M.-N.R.,NS Solar Material Co.
Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics | Year: 2013

In this paper, we compare airgun sound levels measured during an offshore seismic survey to acoustic model predictions. The survey occurred in deep water (>650 m), on and beyond the continental slope in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. The modeling was performed with JASCO Applied Sciences' Marine Operations Noise Model, which uses a parabolic-equation-based algorithm to predict N×2 D sound propagation in ocean environments. Sound levels were measured with up to five calibrated Autonomous Multichannel Acoustic Recorders at distances of 50 to 50,000 m from the airgun array in water depths between 50 and 1,500 m. The sound levels were measured in both the broadside (across-track) and endfire (along-track) directions. The high-resolution digital recordings of seismic sounds were analyzed to determine peak and root-mean-square sound pressure levels and sound exposure levels as functions of range from the airgun array, and compared to the model results. Although the modeled sound levels were generally conservative, the model results accurately predicted the existence of a shadow zone and the overall transmission loss trend. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Schulz J.A.,Ottawa | Ehman W.,Vancouver | Domb S.,Naniamo | Marshall C.,NS Solar Material Co.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada | Year: 2010

Objective: To provide an update of the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation, treatment, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Options: Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute self-treatment are all efficient alternatives to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Vaginal estrogen and cranberry juice can also be effective prophylaxis alternatives. Evidence: A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library for articles published in English identified the most relevant literature. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions. Values: This update is the consensus of the Sub-Committee on Urogynaecology of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Options: Recurrent urinary tract infections need careful investigation and can be efficiently treated and prevented. Different prophylaxis options can be selected according to each patient's characteristics. Recommandations: 1.Urinalysis and midstream urine culture and sensitivity should be performed with the first presentation of symptoms in order to establish a correct diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infection. (III-L)2.Patients with persistent hematuria or persistent growth of bacteria aside from Escherichia coli should undergo cystoscopy and imaging of the upper urinary tract. (III-L)3.Sexually active women suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections and using spermicide should be encouraged to consider an alternative form of contraception. (II-2B)4.Prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection should not be undertaken until a negative culture 1 to 2 weeks after treatment has confirmed eradication of the urinary tract infection. (III-L)5.Continuous daily antibiotic prophylaxis using cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, cephalexin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or a quinolone during a 6-to 12-month period should be offered to women with ≥ 2 urinary tract infections in 6 months or ≥ 3 urinary tract infections in 12 months. (I-A)6.Women with recurrent urinary tract infection associated with sexual intercourse should be offered post-coital prophylaxis as an alternative to continuous therapy in order to minimize cost and side effects. (I-A)7.Acute self-treatment should be restricted to compliant and motivated patients in whom recurrent urinary tract infections have been clearly documented. (I-B)8.Vaginal estrogen should be offered to postmenopausal women who experience recurrent urinary tract infections. (I-A)9.Patients should be informed that cranberry products are effective in reducing recurrent urinary tract infections. (I-A)10.Acupuncture may be considered as an alternative in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women who are unresponsive to or intolerant of antibiotic prophylaxis. (I-B)11.Probiotics and vaccines cannot be offered as proven therapy for recurrent urinary tract infection. (II-2C)12.Pregnant women at risk of recurrent urinary tract infection should be offered continuous or post-coital prophylaxis with nitrofurantoin or cephalexin, except during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. (II-1B). © 2010 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.

Bissix G.,Acadia University | MacCormick K.,Annapolis Valley Regional Hospital | Milburn C.,NS Solar Material Co.
Health Promotion International | Year: 2013

Recently, a study by Burr and his associates culminating in three peer reviewed journal articles and a string of press releases emanating from the off-highway vehicle (OHV) industry claimed that increasing riding time on all terrain recreational vehicles (ATVs) and off road motorcycles (ORMs) could meet the basic guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine and Health Canada for sufficient physical activity leading to positive health adaptations. Should this be true, this study could revolutionize the way that health professionals prescribe physical activity. To examine the efficacy of these claims, the authors convened an expert panel to examine these publications to particularly focus on the problem conceptualization, the research methodology including sample selection and controls, the presentation and interpretation of results and the veracity of their conclusions. The experts concluded, while never questioning the laboratory and field measurements, that there were a number of conceptual, methodological and interpretive limitations and errors that rendered the claims of health benefits indefensible. Furthermore, the researchers largely failed to take account of the healthcare costs associated with riding OHVs which according to the epidemiology literature, and particularly for ATVs, are considerable. © 2012 The Author.

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