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Kumari R.,Banaras Hindu University | Sharma B.,Bidhan Chandra KrishiVishvavidhalaya | Singh R.,NRCAF - National Research Center for Agroforestry
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

The groundnut varieties were evaluated during kharif 2012 in Parasai Sindh watershed of Jhansi in Bundelkhand region, where only 20% of net sown area is irrigated by open wells as life saving irrigation. Six improved varieties of groundnut viz., ICGS-5, ICGV-350, ICGV-86015, ICGV-8784, ICGV-91114, ICGV-9346, Kaushal and one local varieties viz., Jhumku were evaluated for yield potential. The fresh pod yield of groundnut was significantly higher in ICGV-86015, ICGV-8784, lCGV-91114and ICGV-9346 as compared to Jhumku. But the dry pod yield was higher in ICGV-350, ICGV-8784, ICGV-91114 and ICGV-9346 followed by Jhumku. Average RWUE of fresh and dry pod yield of groundnut were recorded 2.85 and 1.77 kg/ha/mm, respectively. However, average WUE using effective rainfall of fresh and dry pod yield of groundnut were 6.52 and 4.03 kg/ha/mm, respectively.

Shukla A.,Dr Hari Singh Gour University | Vyas D.,Dr Hari Singh Gour University | Jha A.,NRCAF - National Research Center for Agroforestry
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2013

Present study deals with the distribution and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in naturally growing Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum. Variations in soil pH and moisture content (%) at different soil depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm) and their possible influences on AMF spore populations were studied at two sites i.e. Jaitpur and Karaiya. A total of 27 AMF species (8 Acaulospora, 1 Cetraspora, 1 Claroideoglomus, 1 Entrophospora, 1 Funneliformis, 13 Glomus, 1 Simiglomus and 1 Septoglomus) were identified. Results revealed that W. somnifera harbors relatively more AMF species (21) than O. sanctum (14). Acaulospora scrobiculata, Sep. deserticola and Sim. hoi dominated the rhizosphere of W. somnifera, while A. scrobiculata, Sep. deserticola and G. fasciculatum were predominant in O. sanctum. Spore populations, soil pH and moisture content varied significantly across soil depths. Moreover, the ability of soil to support AMF population decreased significantly with increased soil depth. Results clearly indicated the involvement of factor other than soil pH and moisture content in AMF distribution. Thus, it may be stated that overriding factor was depth, and this can be justified by fewer roots and fewer mycorrhizae in deeper soil layers.

Sharma A.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh R.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Dhyani S.K.,NRCAF - National Research Center for Agroforestry | Dube R.K.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2010

Mulching with vegetative materials is a highly beneficial and widely-investigated agro-technique in rainfed areas but the adoption of this practice has been constrained due to non-availability of mulch biomass locally. Live mulching with fast-growing annual green manure legumes like sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea) or prunings of Leucaena leucocephala grown as hedge rows can be done for moisture conservation as well as nutrient cycling in the maize-wheat cropping system, which is predominantly followed in the high rainfall sub-mountainous region of north-western India. A field experiment was conducted at Selakui, Dehradun during 2000-2004 to study the effect of legume mulching, viz. in situ grown sunnhemp and Leucaena prunings, along with varying N levels, viz. 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 (to maize), and 0, 40 and 80 kg N ha-1 (to wheat) on productivity, soil moisture conservation and soil physico-chemical properties. Intercropped sunnhemp added 0.75-1.45 t dry matter and 21.6-41. 3 kg N ha-1 at 30-35 days, while Leucaena twigs added 1.89-4.15 t dry matter and 75. 2-161. 3 kg N ha-1 at 60-65 days of maize growth. Live mulching with sunnhemp or Leucaena biomass improved soil moisture content at maize harvest (+1.15-1.57%) and crop productivity by 6.8-8.8% over no mulching. Combined use of both the mulching materials was more effective in improving the soil moisture content (+2.08-2.29%) and grain yield (15.1%) over their single application. Response of maize to N fertilizer application was significant up to 90 kg N ha-1, and it was relatively more pronounced under the mulching treatments. Residual effect of mulching on wheat showed an increase in yield of 10.2% with sunnhemp or Leucaena, and 27.9% with sunnhemp + Leucaena. There was an improvement in organic C and total N status of soil, and a decrease in bulk density associated with an increase in infiltration rate due to mulching at the end of 4 cropping cycles. It was concluded that legume mulching is a highly beneficial practice for enhanced moisture and nutrient conservation, leading to increased productivity and soil health of maize-wheat cropping system under Doon valley conditions of north-western India. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Patel N.T.,Saurashtra University | Gupta A.,NRCAF - National Research Center for Agroforestry | Pandey A.N.,Saurashtra University
Aquatic Botany | Year: 2010

Greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of soil salinity on emergence, growth, water status, proline content and mineral accumulation of seedlings of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. NaCl was added to the soil and salinity was maintained at 0.2, 2.5, 5.1, 7.7, 10.3, 12.6, 15.4, 17.9, 20.5, 23.0, 25.6 and 28.2 psu. A negative relationship between seedling emergence and salt concentration was obtained. Nevertheless, this mangrove is highly salt tolerant during germination. Growth of seedlings was significantly promoted by low salinity and optimum growth was obtained at 15.4 psu. Higher salinities inhibited plant growth. Growth and dry matter accumulation in tissues followed the same optimum curve. Water potential of tissues became significantly more negative with increasing salinity, and proline content significantly increased. Moreover, water potential and proline content of tissues displayed an S-curve with the inflection point below ∼10 psu. The concentration of Na in tissues increased significantly, whereas K, Ca, Mg, N and P content decreased. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ajit,NRCAF - National Research Center for Agroforestry | Das D.K.,Rajendra Agricultural University | Chaturvedi O.P.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Jabeen N.,Punjab Agricultural University | Dhyani S.K.,NRCAF - National Research Center for Agroforestry
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

This article concentrates on development of statistical models for prediction of biomass components (above and below ground) of standing trees of Populus deltoides. Twenty seven trees (three each from age one to nine years) were destructively harvested, separated, sorted, sub-sampled, dried to constant weight at 60 °C and weighted for biomass components (leaf, twig, branch, bole, stump root, lateral root, fine root). Harvesting in a similar manner, was continued annually up to nine years of tree age and thus in all 27 sampled trees were available for analysis and fitting of models. Diameter at breast height (dbh) alone was a very good predictor of dry weight and accordingly the height was not included in the model. Various functions viz (linear, allometric, logistic, gompertz and chapman-richards), were attempted for dry weight estimation. The linear model, though easiest to fit, suffered from the 'negative estimation problem', specifically for the lower range of explanatory variate. Of the remaining non-linear models, the allometric model outperformed the others on the basis of validation criterions. The value of R2 ranged from 0.95 to 0.99, for the allometric models fitted on various biomass components. The proposed models can be used for prediction of component wise dry biomass of P. deltoides for a wide range of dbh values (1-50 cm) at one end and can also help farmers in the choice of economical harvest rather than the traditional physical rotation. In addition, they can be used in carbon sequestration studies, which needs complete biomass estimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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