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Zuraimi M.S.,NRC Institute for Research in Construction
Indoor Air | Year: 2010

Ventilation duct cleaning (DC) is widely advocated to provide good indoor air quality (IAQ), health benefits, cost savings, and enhance ventilation system performance. The aim of the present review is to evaluate the scientific evidence as shown in the literature. There is evidence that under normal operating conditions, ventilation ducts can be contaminated with dusts and serve as reservoirs for microbials to proliferate. While controlled experiments noted that contaminants resuspension can elevate exposure levels indoors, no field studies have correlated poor IAQ with duct contamination. Despite high efficiencies of contaminant removal within the ducts during cleaning, reductions for different indoor air pollutants vary widely, where, post-cleaning air pollutants concentrations can be higher than pre-cleaning levels. Further, there are health concerns in the use of biocides, sealants and encapsulants. There is inadequate evidence to show that DC can improve airflow in ducts and reduce energy consumption. Although epidemiological studies indicate suggestive evidence that improperly maintained ducts are associated with higher risks of symptoms among building occupants, this review finds insufficient evidence that DC can alleviate occupant's symptoms. In summary, the need for duct cleanliness has to be properly balanced by the probable generation of indoor pollution resulting from DC and subsequent potential health risks. © 2010 National Research Council Canada. Source


Bradley J.S.,NRC Institute for Research in Construction
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2011

ISO 3382-1 describes a number of objective room acoustics parameters that are generally accepted as useful for rating some specific aspects of concert hall sound fields. They include measures of decay times, energy ratios, measures of sound strength and several quantities related to the spatial aspects of sound fields. In most cases there are details of the measures, or their application, that raise questions. In general, there has not been a lot of practical research to explore how best to develop and use these objective measures to evaluate conditions in concert halls. For some well established measures such as Early Decay Time (EDT), we are not really sure how best to calculate their values. For other measures such as energy ratios, modifications are often proposed but without the support of subjective evaluations of the proposed changes. In other cases, such as measures of spatial impression, two approaches have been suggested, but their relative merits are not well understood. It is easy to propose ever more complex measures, but it is much more difficult to demonstrate their general utility. On the other hand, some commonly described characteristics do not have accepted related objective measures. Many more important and more general problems relate to the need, for design criteria in terms of each quantity, and for an improved understanding of just noticeable differences for each measure. This paper discusses each measure illustrating particular problems with measurements in various halls. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Maurenbrecher P.,NRC Institute for Research in Construction
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions | Year: 2012

This paper gives a summary of functional and performance requirements for repointing mortars for historic masonry (design, execution and maintenance). Successful performance of repair and conservation of mortar in historic masonry requires more care with design and execution than with modern masonry. © 2012 RILEM. Source


Mostafaei H.,NRC Institute for Research in Construction
Fire Safety Journal | Year: 2013

A new performance-based assessment approach for structures in fire, referred to as hybrid fire testing (HFT) method, is presented in this article. The HFT was developed based on a sub-structuring method, by dividing the whole structure into two substructures, one being tested in a furnace and one being simulated by a computer. This represents a form of hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Using HFT, the performance of the whole building can be evaluated at a very reasonable cost, significantly less than the cost of the direct whole building test. More reliable results than the prescriptive method can also be achieved with comparable and even more comprehensive results than that of a direct full-scale test. A 6-storey reinforced concrete building was designed, as a prototype for application of the hybrid fire testing approach. Two fire scenario examples were considered; a 6-storey building with a fire compartment on the first floor, in the center of the building and a 6-storey building with a fire compartment on the third floor. The two substructures for these two HFT scenarios were; one the column in the fire compartment and two the rest of the building. This paper includes the description of the hybrid testing methodology, details of the 6-storey building prototype and the methodology verification. Using the HFT approach, various scenarios could be explored to couple modeling and testing globally. This may also provide the possibility of running one test in a testing facility, e.g. NRC's, and running the analysis remotely at a different location. This would make furnace facilities more accessible to the research communities around the globe.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Saber H.H.,NRC Institute for Research in Construction
Building and Environment | Year: 2012

Reflective insulations are being used in home attics, flat roofs, sloped roofs and wall systems of building envelopes. The present model, hygIRC-C, was used to investigate the contribution of the reflective insulations to the thermal resistance of specimens. The predictions of the present model were compared with test data of different sample stacks with different types of reflective insulations. In a previous study, the present model was benchmarked using test data obtained from a Guarded Hot Box (GHB) in accordance with the ASTM C-1363 test method. In this study, the test data was obtained from a different test method based on the heat flow meter in accordance of ASTM C-518 in the case of horizontal sample stacks with reflective insulations. Results showed that the predicted heat fluxes on the same area and same location of Heat Flux Transducers (HFTs) on the top and bottom surfaces of the sample stacks are in good agreement with the measured heat fluxes (within ±1%). The derived R-values using these heat fluxes are also in good agreements. Due to the combined effect of heat transfer by convection and radiation in the airspace (facing the reflective surface), these predicted and measured heat fluxes are greater than the area-weighted average heat flux of whole sample stack, which is needed to determine the effective R-value of the sample. As such, the derived R-value from the test data resulted in underestimation of the effective R-value of the sample stack. After gaining confidence in the present model, it was used to conduct parametric study in order to quantify the contribution of reflective insulations to the effective R-value for a sample stack with different inclination angles, different directions of heat flow (upward and downward) and for a wide range of foil emissivity. Furthermore, the present model was used to compare the predicted R-values with the listed R-values in the 2009 ASHRAE Handbook [22] for enclosed air cavity (20mm thick) of different effective emittance, inclinations and directions of heat flow. © 2011. Source

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