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Koeslin-Findeklee F.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Meyer A.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Girke A.,Norddeutsche Pflanzenzucht Hans Georg Lembke KG | Beckmann K.,NPZ Innovation GmbH | Horst W.J.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Aims: Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivation causes high nitrogen (N) balance surpluses. The breeding and cultivation of N-efficient cultivars (high grain yield under low N supply) can contribute to the reduction of the crop-specific N surpluses. Comparing line cultivars with hybrids and dwarfs the hypothesis was tested if stay-green into reproductive growth contributes to superior N efficiency of hybrids and dwarfs.Methods: The present work comprised two years field experiments with ten line, five hybrid and three dwarf cultivars and hydroponic experiments with three hybrid and nine line cultivars.Results: Hybrids were superior in yield formation independent of the N supply. The greater N efficiency of the hybrids was related to a higher N uptake until maturity, but not to stay-green. This was in agreement with a hydroponic experiment in which the hybrids were particularly responsive in N starvation-induced leaf senescence of older leaves as revealed by SPAD, photosynthesis and the expression of the senescence-specific cysteine protease gene SAG12-1. Additionally, hybrids were characterized by an efficient N retranslocation from vegetative to reproductive plant organs in combination with a lower grain-N concentration.Conclusions: Both, N uptake and N utilization efficiency were decisive for the superior N efficiency of the hybrids. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Jan H.U.,Justus Liebig University | Abbadi A.,NPZ Innovation GmbH | Lucke S.,Norddeutsche Pflanzenzucht Hans Georg Lembke KG | Nichols R.A.,Queen Mary, University of London | Snowdon R.J.,Justus Liebig University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Genomic selection (GS) is a modern breeding approach where genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker profiles are simultaneously used to estimate performance of untested genotypes. In this study, the potential of genomic selection methods to predict testcross performance for hybrid canola breeding was applied for various agronomic traits based on genome-wide marker profiles. A total of 475 genetically diverse spring-type canola pollinator lines were genotyped at 24,403 single-copy, genome-wide SNP loci. In parallel, the 950 F1 testcross combinations between the pollinators and two representative testers were evaluated for a number of important agronomic traits including seedling emergence, days to flowering, lodging, oil yield and seed yield along with essential seed quality characters including seed oil content and seed glucosinolate content. A ridge-regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) model was applied in combination with 500 cross-validations for each trait to predict testcross performance, both across the whole population as well as within individual subpopulations or clusters, based solely on SNP profiles. Subpopulations were determined using multidimensional scaling and K-means clustering. Genomic prediction accuracy across the whole population was highest for seed oil content (0.81) followed by oil yield (0.75) and lowest for seedling emergence (0.29). For seed yieId, seed glucosinolate, lodging resistance and days to onset of flowering (DTF), prediction accuracies were 0.45, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.56, respectively. Prediction accuracies could be increased for some traits by treating subpopulations separately; a strategy which only led to moderate improvements for some traits with low heritability, like seedling emergence. No useful or consistent increase in accuracy was obtained by inclusion of a population substructure covariate in the model. Testcross performance prediction using genome-wide SNP markers shows considerable potential for pre-selection of promising hybrid combinations prior to resource-intensive field testing over multiple locations and years. © 2016 Jan et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Hatzig S.V.,Justus Liebig University | Frisch M.,Justus Liebig University | Breuer F.,KWS SAAT AG | Nesi N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Rapid and uniform seed germination is a crucial prerequisite for crop establishment and high yield levels in crop production. A disclosure of genetic factors contributing to adequate seed vigor would help to further increase yield potential and stability. Here we carried out a genome-wide association study in order to define genomic regions influencing seed germination and early seedling growth in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). A population of 248 genetically diverse winter-type B. napus accessions was genotyped with the Brassica 60k SNP Illumina genotyping array. Automated high-throughput in vitro phenotyping provided extensive data for multiple traits related to germination and early vigor, such as germination speed, absolute germination rate and radicle elongation. The data obtained indicate that seed germination and radicle growth are strongly environmentally dependent, but could nevertheless be substantially improved by genomic-based breeding. Conditions during seed production and storage were shown to have a profound effect on seed vigor, and a variable manifestation of seed dormancy appears to contribute to differences in germination performance in B. napus. Several promising positional and functional candidate genes could be identified within the genomic regions associated with germination speed, absolute germination rate, radicle growth and thousand seed weight. These include B. napus orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes SNOWY COTYLEDON 1 (SCO1), ARABiDOPSiS TWO-COMPONENT RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR4), and ARGiNYL-t-RNA PROTEiN TRANSFERASE 1 (ATE1), which have been shown previously to play a role in seed germination and seedling growth in A. thaliana. © 2015 Hatzig, Frisch, Breuer, Nesi, Ducournau, Wagner, Leckband, Abbadi and Snowdon. Source

Schmutzer T.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Samans B.,Justus Liebig University | Dyrszka E.,Syngenta | Ulpinnis C.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | And 12 more authors.
Scientific Data | Year: 2015

Brassica napus (oilseed rape, canola) is one of the world's most important sources of vegetable oil for human nutrition and biofuel, and also a model species for studies investigating the evolutionary consequences of polyploidisation. Strong bottlenecks during its recent origin from interspecific hybridisation, and subsequently through intensive artificial selection, have severely depleted the genetic diversity available for breeding. On the other hand, high-throughput genome profiling technologies today provide unprecedented scope to identify, characterise and utilise genetic diversity in primary and secondary crop gene pools. Such methods also enable implementation of genomic selection strategies to accelerate breeding progress. The key prerequisite is availability of high-quality sequence data and identification of high-quality, genome-wide sequence polymorphisms representing relevant gene pools. We present comprehensive genome resequencing data from a panel of 52 highly diverse natural and synthetic B. napus accessions, along with a stringently selected panel of 4.3 million high-confidence, genome-wide SNPs. The data is of great interest for genomics-assisted breeding and for evolutionary studies on the origins and consequences in allopolyploidisation in plants. Source

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