Podol’sk, Russia
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Bottomley D.,Itu Institute For Transurane | Stuckert J.,KIT Campus Nord | Hofmann P.,KIT Campus Nord | Tocheny L.,ISTC Krasnoproletarskaya 32 34 | And 21 more authors.
Nuclear Engineering and Design | Year: 2012

The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) was set up in Moscow to support non-proliferation of sensitive knowledge and technologies in biological, chemical and nuclear domains by engaging scientists in peaceful research programmes with a broad international cooperation. The paper has two following objectives: • to describe the organization of complex, international, experimental and analytical research of material processes under extreme conditions similar to those of severe accidents in nuclear reactors and, • to inform briefly about some results of these studies. The main forms of ISTC activity are Research Projects and Supporting Programs. In the Research Projects informal contact expert groups (CEGs) were set up by ISTC to improve coordination between adjacent projects and to encourage international collaboration. The European Commission was the first to use this. The CEG members - experts from the national institutes and industry - evaluated and managed the projects' scientific results from initial stage of proposal formulation until the final reporting. They were often involved directly in the project's details by joining the Steering Committees of the project. The Contact Expert Group for Severe Accidents and Management (CEG-SAM) is one of these groups, five project groups from this area from the total of 30 funded projects during 10 years of activity are detailed to demonstrate this: (1) QUENCH-VVER from RIAR, Dimitrovgrad and IBRAE, Moscow, and PARAMETER projects (SF1-SF4) from LUCH, Podolsk and IBRAE, Moscow; these concerned a detailed study of bundle quenching from high temperature; (2) Reactor Core Degradation; a modelling project simulating the fuel rod degradation and loss of geometry from IBRAE, Moscow; (3) METCOR projects from NITI, St. Petersburg on the interaction of core melt with reactor vessel steel; (4) INVECOR project, NNE Kurchatov City, Kazakhstan; this is a large-scale facility to examine the vessel steel retention of 60 kg corium during the decay heat; and finally, (5) CORPHAD and PRECOS projects, NITI, St. Petersburg undertook a systematic examination of refractory ceramics relevant to in-vessel and ex-vessel coria, particularly examining poorly characterised, limited data or experimentally difficult systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Steinbruck M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Birchley J.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Boldyrev A.V.,RAS Nuclear Safety Institute | Goryachev A.V.,RIAR | And 10 more authors.
Progress in Nuclear Energy | Year: 2010

This paper gives an overview on the status of knowledge of high-temperature oxidation of the two zirconium alloys Zircaloy-4 and E110 with special emphasis on results obtained during the SARNET period. The tin-bearing alloy Zircaloy-4 and the niobium-bearing alloy E110 are the materials for cladding and structures used in pressurised water reactors of the Western-type and VVERs and RBMKs, respectively. Results of separate-effects tests, single-rod tests, and large-scale bundle experiments are summarised. Focus is directed to oxidation kinetics at high temperature, hydrogen release and absorption by the remaining metal, and behaviour during quenching. Both materials behave very similarly as long as the superficial oxide scales formed during oxidation are dense and protective. Main differences are seen in connection with breakaway oxidation which leads to enhanced oxidation and hydrogen uptake and thus embrittlement and possibly earlier failure of the cladding. The temperature range at which pronounced breakaway is observed is different for the two alloys. The status of modelling of oxidation kinetics, thermo-mechanical behaviour during cooldown and the influence of irradiation are discussed at the end of the paper. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Molodenskii D.S.,RAS Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography | Kheiker D.M.,RAS Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography | Korchuganov V.N.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute | Konoplev E.E.,NPO Luch | Dorovatovskii P.V.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Crystallography Reports | Year: 2012

The mounting of an X-ray diffraction station on the side beam of a 19-pole superconducting wig gler makes it possible not only to use the central synchrotron radiation beam with a wavelength of 0.5 Å, but also to solve problems requiring softer X rays at a synchrotron radiation (SR) intensity exceeding that for the beams from the bending magnet. A numerical simulation of the formation of photon beams from a source and their transmission through the elements of the station (and through the station as a whole) allows one to calculate the parameters of the station, compare it with the existing analogs, determine its potential and actual efficiency of its elements, and estimate the adjustment quality. A numerical simulation of the SR source on the side beam from the wiggler and the focusing channel (segmented condenser mirror, monochromator with sagittal focusing by the segmented second crystal, and segmented focusing mirror) has been performed. The sizes of the focus and the divergence of rays in it are determined with allowance for the finite sizes of segments. The intensity of radiation with a wavelength = 1.0 Å in the focus is determined taking into account the loss in the SR extraction channel and in the focusing channel. The values of the critical wavelength for the side beam from the wiggler and the wavelength resolution are calculated. The intensities in the X-ray diffraction pattern and its angular resolution are found. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Kheiker D.M.,RAS Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography | Konoplev E.E.,NPO Luch | Molodenskii D.S.,RAS Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography | Shishkov V.A.,RAS Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography | Dorovatovskii P.V.,RAS Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography
Crystallography Reports | Year: 2010

The thermal load caused by the absorption of synchrotron radiation in X-ray optical elements of the Belok and RSA stations leads to optics elements heating and induces strains upon simultaneous cooling. The heating of the cooled first crystal in the double-crystal monochromator causes its bending and increases the reflected beam divergence, which, in turn, results in the monochromatic beam intensity loss [1]. Numerical simulation makes it possible to more accurately determine the strains, choose the optimal monochromator design, estimate the vertical sizes of the focal spot and wavelength resolution in the focusing channel, correctly design the system for cooling the mirror at the channel input, and choose a design providing the minimum temperature of the beam-limiting slit knives. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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