NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry

Nagoya-shi, Japan

NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry

Nagoya-shi, Japan
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Palaniswami R.,Madurai Kamaraj University | And 4 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of human diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that includes hydrogen peroxide, hyphochlorus acid, superoxide anion, singlet oxygen, lipid peroxides, hypochlorite and hydroxyl radical are involved in growth, differentiation, progression and death of the cell. They can react with membrane lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes and other small molecules. Low concentrations of ROS has an indispensable role in intracellular signalling and defence against pathogens, while, higher amounts of ROS play a role in number of human diseases, including arthritis, cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, ischemia, failures in immunity and endocrine functions. Antioxidants presumably act as safeguard against the accumulation of ROS and their elimination from the system. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in understanding of the ROS and also to summarize the detailed impact and involvement of antioxidants in selected human diseases. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Thangavel J.,Illinois College | Nishigaki Y.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Alterations of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a central role in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the key function of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries. The endothelium is directly involved in peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, insulin resistance, chronic kidney failure, tumor growth, metastasis, venous thrombosis, and severe viral infectious diseases. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium is thus a hallmark of human diseases. In this review the main endothelial abnormalities found in various human diseases such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and viral infections are addressed. © Ivyspring International Publisher.


Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Balasubramanian M.P.,University of Madras | Nishigaki I.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry
Nutrients | Year: 2013

Epidemiological investigations have shown that overcoming the risk of cancer is related to the consumption of green vegetables and fruits. Many compounds from different origins, such as terrestrial plants and marine and microbial sources, have been reported to have therapeutic effects of which marine sources are the most important because the diversity of marine life is more varied than other sources. Fucoxanthin is one important compound with a marine origin and belongs to the group of carotenoids; it can be found in marine brown seaweeds, macroalgae, and diatoms, all of which have remarkable biological properties. Numerous studies have shown that fucoxanthin has considerable medicinal potential and promising applications in human health. In this review, we summarize the anticancer effects of fucoxanthin through several different mechanisms including anti-proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and anti-angiogenesis, and its possible role in the treatment of cancer. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Rengarajan T.,University of Madras | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,University of Madras | Nandakumar N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Development of drugs from natural products has been undergoing a gradual evoluation. Many plant derived compounds have excellent therapeutic potential against various human ailments. They are important sources especially for anticancer agents. A number of promising new agents are in clinical development based on their selective molecular targets in the field of oncology. D-pinitol is a naturally occurring compound derived from soy which has significant pharmacological activitites. Therefore we selected D-pinitol in order to evaluate apoptotic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Human breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of D-pinitol and cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The mechanism of apoptosis was studied with reference to expression of p53, Bcl-2, Bax and NF-kB proteins. The results revealed that D-pinitol significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, while upregulating the expression of p53, Bax and down regulating Bcl-2 and NF-kB. Thus the results obtained in this study clearly vindicated that D-pinitol induces apotosis in MCF-7 cells through regulation of proteins of pro- and anti-apoptotic cascades.


Rengarajan T.,University of Madras | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,University of Madras | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate whether D-pinitol efficiently scavenge free radicals using various in vitro models [1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, superoxide anion and total antioxidant activity] and in vivo models. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (150-160 g) were divided into four groups and each group consisting of six animals. Group I and group IV were vector and drug control. The group II and group III animals were treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) 20 mg/kg body weight to induce mammary carcinoma. Rats received cancer bearing Group III animals were treated with D-pinitol at the concentration of 200 mg/kg bodyweight for 45 d orally. Five different concentrations of D-pinitol (100 to 500 μg/mL) were used in in vitro studies. Resutls: The results revealed that D-pinitol efficiently scavenges DPPH radicals and the IC50 was found to be 290 μg/mL and it also exhibited a dose dependent antioxidant activity at different concentrations. In addition, the superoxide and nitricoxide radicals were also significantly inhibited by D-pinitol at the concentrations of 360 and 390 μg/mL respectively. On the other hand, D-pinitol has significantly increased antioxidant enzymes during DMBA induced mammary carcinoma. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the investigation that D-pinitol has an excellent antioxidant activity which could be due to the scavenging capacities on the stable DPPH radicals, superoxide, nitric oxide and DMBA induced free radicals thereby it exhibits remarkable total antioxidant activity. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Rajendran P.,University of Madras | Jayakumar T.,University of Madras | Nishigaki I.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Ekambaram G.,University of Madras | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2013

The immunomodulatory activity of mangiferin was studied in various groups of animals. For this study, adult Swiss albino male mice were treated with benzo(a)pyrene, abbreviated as B(a)P, at 50 mg/kg body weight orally twice a week for 4 weeks; and mangiferin was also given orally (pre- and post-initiation of carcinoma) at 100 mg/kg body weight. Immunocompetence and immune complexes as measured by phagocyte index, avidity index, and soluble immune complex (SIC) levels (p<0.001), as well as NBT reduction, were decreased in the B(a)P-treated animals; whereas increased levels of immunocompetence were noted in the mangiferin-treated animals given B(a)P (p<0.001, p<0.05). The levels of immunoglobulins such as IgG and IgM were decreased considerably (p<0.001) in the B(a)P-treated animals compared with their levels in the control animals; whereas the IgA level was increased (p<0.001). In the mangiferin-treated experimental animals given B(a)P, the levels of IgG and IgM were significantly (p<0.001, p<0.05) increased whereas the IgA level was decreased compared with those for the B(a)P-treated mice. Oxidative changes in lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages were also measured. The enhanced lipid peroxidation and decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities found in the lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and macrophages from B(a)P-treated mice were significantly reduced and increased, respectively, by the mangiferin treatment. This study confirms the immunomodulatory effect of mangiferin and shows an immunoprotective role arbitrated through a reduction in the reactive intermediate-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages. © 2013 Peramaiyan Rajendran et al.


Rengarajan T.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2015

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels, petroleum products, and coal. The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment. PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments, the atmosphere, and ice. Due to their widespread distribution, the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern. Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans. The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources, route of exposure, worldwide emission rate, and adverse effects on humans, especially with reference to cancer. © 2015 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.


Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Palaniswami R.,Madurai Kamaraj University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g., tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries, and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g., Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Its anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory effects have been demonstrated in various disease models, including those for encephalomyelitis, diabetes, asthma, and carcinogenesis. Moreover, kaempferol act as a scavenger of free radicals and superoxide radicals as well as preserve the activity of various anti-oxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. The anticancer effect of this flavonoid is mediated through different modes of action, including anti-proliferation, apoptosis induction, cell-cycle arrest, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-metastasis/anti- angiogenesis activities. In addition, kaempferol was found to exhibit its anticancer activity through the modulation of multiple molecular targets including p53 and STAT3, through the activation of caspases, and through the generation of ROS. The anti-tumor effects of kaempferol have also been investigated in tumor-bearing mice. The combination of kaempferol and conventional chemotherapeutic drugs produces a greater therapeutic effect than the latter, as well as reduces the toxicity of the latter. In this review, we summarize the anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of kaempferol with a focus on its molecular targets and the possible use of this flavonoid for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.


Chacko S.M.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Thambi P.T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Kuttan R.,Amala Cancer Research Center | Nishigaki I.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry
Chinese Medicine | Year: 2010

The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action. © 2010 Chacko et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of receptor and signal transduction research | Year: 2015

A variety of bioactive food components have been shown to modulate inflammatory responses and to attenuate carcinogenesis. Polyphenols isolated several years ago from various medicinal plants now seem to have a prominent role in the prevention and therapy of a variety of ailments. Mangiferin, a unique, important, and highly investigated polyphenol, has attracted much attention of late for its potential as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against various types of cancer. Mangiferin has been shown to target multiple proinflammatory transcription factors, cell- cycle proteins, growth factors, kinases, cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and inflammatory enzymes. These targets can potentially mediate the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of mangiferin by inhibiting the initiation, promotion, and metastasis of cancer. This review not only summarizes the diverse molecular targets of mangiferin, but also gives the results of various preclinical studies that have been performed in the last decade with this promising polyphenol.

Loading NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry collaborators
Loading NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry collaborators