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Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Balasubramanian M.P.,University of Madras | Nishigaki I.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry
Nutrients | Year: 2013

Epidemiological investigations have shown that overcoming the risk of cancer is related to the consumption of green vegetables and fruits. Many compounds from different origins, such as terrestrial plants and marine and microbial sources, have been reported to have therapeutic effects of which marine sources are the most important because the diversity of marine life is more varied than other sources. Fucoxanthin is one important compound with a marine origin and belongs to the group of carotenoids; it can be found in marine brown seaweeds, macroalgae, and diatoms, all of which have remarkable biological properties. Numerous studies have shown that fucoxanthin has considerable medicinal potential and promising applications in human health. In this review, we summarize the anticancer effects of fucoxanthin through several different mechanisms including anti-proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and anti-angiogenesis, and its possible role in the treatment of cancer. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Thangavel J.,Illinois College | Nishigaki Y.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Alterations of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a central role in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the key function of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries. The endothelium is directly involved in peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, insulin resistance, chronic kidney failure, tumor growth, metastasis, venous thrombosis, and severe viral infectious diseases. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium is thus a hallmark of human diseases. In this review the main endothelial abnormalities found in various human diseases such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and viral infections are addressed. © Ivyspring International Publisher.


Rengarajan T.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2015

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels, petroleum products, and coal. The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment. PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments, the atmosphere, and ice. Due to their widespread distribution, the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern. Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans. The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources, route of exposure, worldwide emission rate, and adverse effects on humans, especially with reference to cancer. © 2015 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.


Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Palaniswami R.,Madurai Kamaraj University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g., tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries, and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g., Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Its anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory effects have been demonstrated in various disease models, including those for encephalomyelitis, diabetes, asthma, and carcinogenesis. Moreover, kaempferol act as a scavenger of free radicals and superoxide radicals as well as preserve the activity of various anti-oxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. The anticancer effect of this flavonoid is mediated through different modes of action, including anti-proliferation, apoptosis induction, cell-cycle arrest, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-metastasis/anti- angiogenesis activities. In addition, kaempferol was found to exhibit its anticancer activity through the modulation of multiple molecular targets including p53 and STAT3, through the activation of caspases, and through the generation of ROS. The anti-tumor effects of kaempferol have also been investigated in tumor-bearing mice. The combination of kaempferol and conventional chemotherapeutic drugs produces a greater therapeutic effect than the latter, as well as reduces the toxicity of the latter. In this review, we summarize the anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of kaempferol with a focus on its molecular targets and the possible use of this flavonoid for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.


Rengarajan T.,University of Madras | Rengarajan T.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Rajendran P.,NPO International Laboratory of Biochemistry | Nandakumar N.,University of Madras | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate whether D-pinitol efficiently scavenge free radicals using various in vitro models [1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, superoxide anion and total antioxidant activity] and in vivo models. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (150-160 g) were divided into four groups and each group consisting of six animals. Group I and group IV were vector and drug control. The group II and group III animals were treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) 20 mg/kg body weight to induce mammary carcinoma. Rats received cancer bearing Group III animals were treated with D-pinitol at the concentration of 200 mg/kg bodyweight for 45 d orally. Five different concentrations of D-pinitol (100 to 500 μg/mL) were used in in vitro studies. Resutls: The results revealed that D-pinitol efficiently scavenges DPPH radicals and the IC50 was found to be 290 μg/mL and it also exhibited a dose dependent antioxidant activity at different concentrations. In addition, the superoxide and nitricoxide radicals were also significantly inhibited by D-pinitol at the concentrations of 360 and 390 μg/mL respectively. On the other hand, D-pinitol has significantly increased antioxidant enzymes during DMBA induced mammary carcinoma. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the investigation that D-pinitol has an excellent antioxidant activity which could be due to the scavenging capacities on the stable DPPH radicals, superoxide, nitric oxide and DMBA induced free radicals thereby it exhibits remarkable total antioxidant activity. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.

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