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Xiong J.L.,Zhejiang University | Wang Y.M.,Novus International Trading Shanghai Co. | Ma M.R.,Jinhua Polytechnic | Liu J.X.,Zhejiang University
Food Control | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw milk samples from 18 dairy farms in the Yangtze River Delta region during four different seasons. A total of 72 tank milk samples was collected with 18 samples for each season. Milk AFM1 was detected using LC-MS/MS. The AFM1 was detected in 43 milk samples (59.7%) ranging in concentration from 10 to 420ng/L. The concentration of AFM1 in raw milk was significantly higher during the winter (123ng/L) than during other seasons (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the spring (29.1ng/L), summer (31.9ng/L), and autumn (31.6ng/L) (P>0.05) seasons. This indicates that raw milk collected during the winter is at high risk for AFM1 and that seasonal factors should be considered for the management of aflatoxins in both the feed and milk. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhu K.H.,Northwest University, China | Xu X.R.,Northwest University, China | Sun D.F.,Novus International Trading Shanghai Co. | Tang J.L.,Northwest University, China | Zhang Y.K.,Northwest University, China
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

This study investigated the effect of drinking water acidification by organic acid on growth performance, gastrointestinal enzyme activity and pH, and the proportion of selected bacterium to total bacteria in growing rabbits. Ninety-six male healthy rabbits weaned at 35 days old of age were randomly divided into four groups: control, pH 5.0, pH 4.3 and pH 3.6 groups. The control group drank groundwater with a pH of 7.3. To obtain the required pH, a commercial mixture of organic acid was added to groundwater in groups pH 5.0, pH 4.3 and pH 3.6 by 0.55. g/kg, 0.85. g/kg and 3.3. g/kg, respectively. The trial lasted for 35 days, and 6 rabbits from each group were slaughtered at the end for subsequent measurements. Acidification of drinking water did not affect diarrhoea incidence and mortality rate, but had a quadratic increasing effect on average daily gain (ADG) and final weight, and quadratic decreasing function on feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.013, P = 0.007 and P = 0.040, respectively), 0.85. g/kg organic acid supplementation showed maximal positive effect on ADG, final weight and FCR. Compared to control, ADG and final weight in pH 4.3 group increased by 12.9% (P = 0.016) and 8.3% (P = 0.020), respectively. The acidity of digesta in gastric fundus and gastric middle was decreased linearly (P = 0.007 and P = 0.014, respectively). Rabbits in pH 3.6 group tended to have a lower gastric middle pH than control (P = 0.09). Organic acid supplementation in drinking water showed a quadratic increasing effect on the activity of pepsin in the stomach (P = 0.036), and pH 4.3 group had highest value, which increased by 23.6% (P = 0.06) when compared with control. The proportions of Escherichia coli to total bacteria and to Bacteroides- Prevotella were decreased linearly (P = 0.025 and P = 0.003, respectively). Compared with control, rabbits in other three groups had lower proportions of E. coli to Bacteroides- Prevotella (P = 0.03, P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). The relative proportion of Bacteroides- Prevotella or Lactobacillus to total bacteria tended to increase linearly (P = 0.09 and P = 0.058, respectively). This study demonstrated that acidification of drinking water with organic acid improved part of growth performances, compensated for gastric acidity and affected microbial community structure in caecum in growing rabbits. The most appropriate pH of acidified drinking water was 4.3 in present study. © 2014. Source

Xiong J.L.,Zhejiang University | Xiong J.L.,Wuhan Polytechnic University | Wang Y.M.,Novus International Trading Shanghai Co. | Nennich T.D.,Purdue University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

The objectives of this study were to investigate the transfer of aflatoxin from feed to milk and to evaluate the effects of Solis Mos (SM; Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) on milk aflatoxin M1, plasma biochemical parameters, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows fed varying doses of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Three groups of 8 multiparous Holstein cows in late lactation (days in milk=271±29; milk yield=21.6±3.1kg/d) were assigned to 1 of 3 experiments in a crossover design. Cows in experiment 1 received no aflatoxin, cows in experiment 2 received 20 μg of AFB1/kg of dry matter, and cows in experiment 3 received 40 μg of AFB1/kg of dry matter. Cows in each experiment were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: control or 0.25% SM. Each experiment consisted of 2 consecutive periods with the first 4 d (d 1 to 4) as adaptation, followed by AFB1 challenge for 7 d (d 5 to 11), and finally clearance for 5 d (d 12 to 16) in each period. Samples of total mixed ration and milk were collected on d 1, 2, and 10 to 14 of each period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein on d 1, 11, and 14 of each period. Rumen fluid was collected by oral stomach tube 2 h after the morning feeding on d 1 and 11 of each period. Adding SM to basal or AFB1-contaminated diets at 0.25% had no effect on lactation performance, liver function, or immune response. However, addition of SM improved antioxidative status, as indicated by increased plasma concentrations of superoxide dismutase and reduced malondialdehyde regardless of dietary AFB1 level. Addition of SM to the AFB1-free diet eliminated the background AFM1 in milk and increased total ruminal volatile fatty acid (99.6 vs. 94.2 mM) concentrations. Adding SM to the AFB1-contaminated diet in experiment 2 decreased the AFM1 concentration (88.4 vs. 105.3ng/L) and the transfer of aflatoxin to milk (0.46 vs. 0.56%), and increased total volatile fatty acid concentration (99.8 vs. 93.4 mM). Adding SM to diets with 40 μg/kg of AFB1 did not elicit changes in rumen parameters or AFM1 output. These results indicated that adding SM to diets containing 0 or 20 μg of AFB1/kg decreased milk AFM1 concentration, improved antioxidative status, and altered rumen fermentation, whereas adding SM to a diet containing 40 μg of AFB1/kg did not reduce AFB1 transfer but did increase the antioxidant status of the liver. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Chapinal N.,University of British Columbia | Liang Y.,Novus International Inc. | Weary D.M.,University of British Columbia | Wang Y.,Novus International Trading Shanghai Co. | Von Keyserlingk M.A.G.,University of British Columbia
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The objective was to investigate the association between herd-level management and facility design and the prevalence of lameness and hock injuries in high-producing dairy cows on commercial freestall farms in China. Housing and management measures, such as stall design, bedding type, and milking routine were collected for the high-producing pen in 34 farms in China. All cows in the pen were gait scored using a 5-point scale, and evaluated for hock injuries using a 3-point scale. Measures associated with the proportion of clinically (score ≥3) or severely (score ≥4) lame cows, and the proportion of cows having at least a minor hock injury (score ≥2) or severe injury (score = 3) at the univariable level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. The prevalence [mean ± SD (range)] of clinical and severe lameness were 31 ± 12 (7-51) and 10 ± 6% (0- 27%), respectively, and the prevalence of cows with at least a minor hock injury and with severe injuries was 40 ± 20 (6 - 95) and 5 ± 9% (0 - 50%), respectively. The prevalence of clinical lameness and severe lameness decreased with herd size (estimate = -0.35. ± 0.09% for a 100-cow increase for clinical lameness; estimate = 0.15. ± 0.06% for a 100-cow increase for severe lameness). Prevalence increased with barn age >9. yr (estimate = 12.73. ± 4.42% for clinical lameness; estimate = 5.79. ± 2.89% for severe lameness). These 2 variables combined explained 49% of the variation in clinical lameness and 30% of the variation in severe lameness. The prevalence of all hock injuries and severe hock injuries decreased with deep bedding (estimate = -20.90 ± 5.66% for all hock injuries; estimate = -3.65 ± 1.41% for severe hock injuries) and increased with barn age >9. yr (estimate = 16.68 ± 7.17% for all hock injuries; estimate = 6.95 ± 1.75% for severe injuries). These 2 variables explained 52 and 58% of the variation, respectively. In conclusion, large variation existed across farms in prevalence of lameness and hock injuries. Changes in housing and management may help control the prevalence of lameness and hock injuries in the emerging dairy industry in China. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Source

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