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Ma J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang Z.,Novogene Bioinformatics Institute | He S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNA ~22 nucleotides in length that can regulate the expression of a wide range of coding genes at the post-transcriptional level. Visceral adipose tissues (VATs) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SATs), the two main fat compartments in mammals, are anatomically, physiologically, metabolically, and clinically distinct. Various studies of adipose tissues have focused mainly on DNA methylation, and mRNA and protein expression, nonetheless little research sheds directly light on the miRNA transcriptome differences between these two distinct adipose tissue types. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of miRNA transcriptomes across six variant porcine adipose tissues by small RNA-sequencing. We identified 219 known porcine miRNAs, 97 novel miRNA*s, and 124 miRNAs that are conserved to other mammals. A set of universally abundant miRNAs (i.e., miR-148a-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-let-7a-1-5p, and miR-let-7f-5p) across the distinct adipose tissues was found. This set of miRNAs may play important housekeeping roles that are involved in adipogenesis. Clustering analysis indicated significant variations in miRNA expression between the VATs and SATs, and highlighted the role of the greater omentum in responding to potential metabolic risk because of the observed enrichment in this tissue of the immune- and inflammation-related miRNAs, such as the members of miR-17-92 cluster and miR-181 family. Differential expression of the miRNAs between the VATs and SATs, and miRNA target prediction analysis revealed that the VATs-specific enriched miRNAs were associated mainly with immune and inflammation responses. In summary, the differences of miRNA expression between the VATs and SATs revealed some of their intrinsic differences and indicated that the VATs might be closely associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders. © 2013 Ma et al. Source

Zhang N.,China Agricultural University | Zhang H.-J.,China Agricultural University | Zhao B.,China Agricultural University | Sun Q.-Q.,China Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2014

Cucumber is a model cucurbitaceous plant with a known genome sequence which is important for studying molecular mechanisms of root development. In this study, RNA sequencing was employed to explore the mechanism of melatonin-induced lateral root formation in cucumber under salt stress. Three groups of seeds were examined, that is, seeds primed without melatonin (CK), seeds primed in a solution containing 10 or 500 μmol/L melatonin (M10 and M500, respectively). These seeds were then germinated in NaCl solution. The RNA-seq analysis generated 16,866,670 sequence reads aligned with 17,920 genes, which provided abundant data for the analysis of lateral root formation. A total of 17,552, 17,450, and 17,393 genes were identified from roots of the three treatments (CK, M10 and M500, respectively). The expression of 121 genes was significantly up-regulated, and 196 genes were significantly down-regulated in M500 which showed an obvious increase on the number of lateral roots. These genes were significantly enriched in 57 KEGG pathways and 16 GO terms (M500 versus CK). Based on their expression pattern, peroxidase-related genes were selected as the candidates to be involved in the melatonin response. Several transcription factor families might play important roles in lateral root formation processes. A number of genes related to cell wall formation, carbohydrate metabolic processes, oxidation/reduction processes, and catalytic activity also showed different expression patterns as a result of melatonin treatments. This RNA-sequencing study will enable the scientific community to better define the molecular processes that affect lateral root formation in response to melatonin treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Jin L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang Z.,Novogene Bioinformatics Institute | Xia Y.,E GENE | Lou P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 13 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Age-related physiological, biochemical and functional changes in mammalian skeletal muscle have been shown to begin at the mid-point of the lifespan. However, the underlying changes in DNA methylation that occur during this turning point of the muscle aging process have not been clarified. To explore age-related genomic methylation changes in skeletal muscle, we employed young (0.5 years old) and middle-aged (7 years old) pigs as models to survey genome-wide DNA methylation in the longissimus dorsi muscle using a methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing approach.Results: We observed a tendency toward a global loss of DNA methylation in the gene-body region of the skeletal muscle of the middle-aged pigs compared with the young group. We determined the genome-wide gene expression pattern in the longissimus dorsi muscle using microarray analysis and performed a correlation analysis using DMR (differentially methylated region)-mRNA pairs, and we found a significant negative correlation between the changes in methylation levels within gene bodies and gene expression. Furthermore, we identified numerous genes that show age-related methylation changes that are potentially involved in the aging process. The methylation status of these genes was confirmed using bisulfite sequencing PCR. The genes that exhibited a hypomethylated gene body in middle-aged pigs were over-represented in various proteolysis and protein catabolic processes, suggesting an important role for these genes in age-related muscle atrophy. In addition, genes associated with tumorigenesis exhibited aged-related differences in methylation and expression levels, suggesting an increased risk of disease associated with increased age.Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in aging pig skeletal muscle. Our findings will serve as a valuable resource in aging studies, promoting the pig as a model organism for human aging research and accelerating the development of comparative animal models in aging research. © 2014 Jin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Zhou Y.,Peking University | Zhou Y.,Novogene Bioinformatics Institute | Zhou Y.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Zhao C.,Peking University | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Aberrantly activated c-MET signaling occurs in several cancers, promoting the development of c-MET inhibitors. In this study, we found that eight of eight thyroid cancer cell lines (including six anaplastic thyroid cell lines) have prominent expression of c-MET protein. Fifty percent of the thyroid cancer cell lines (four of eight) were growth inhibited by two small molecule c-MET inhibitors (tivantinib and crizotinib) associated with apoptosis and G 2-M cell-cycle arrest. However, crizotinib did not inhibit 50% proliferation of thyroid cancer cells (SW1736 and TL3) at a concentration at which the drug completely inhibited ligand-stimulated c-MET phosphorylation. However, tivantinib was less potent than crizotinib at inhibiting c-MET phosphorylation, but was more potent than crizotinib at decreasing cell growth. Suppressing c-MET protein expression and phosphorylation using siRNA targeting c-MET did not induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Taken together, tivantinib and crizotinib have off-target(s) activity, contributing to their antitumor activity. In vivo study showed that crizotinib markedly inhibited the growth of thyroid cancer cells (SW1736) in immunodeficient mice. In summary, c-MET inhibitors (tivantinib and crizotinib) suppress the growth of aggressive thyroid cancer cells, and this potential therapeutic benefit results from their non-MET-targeting effects. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Li J.,Shantou University | Zhou Y.,Novogene Bioinformatics Institute | Zhou Y.,Peking University | Gu J.,Shantou University | Gu J.,Peking University
Histochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Multiple staining of more than one gene/antigen on a single tissue section is an indispensable tool in cell and tissue research. However, most of the available multiple staining techniques have limitations, and there has been no technique to simultaneously visualize and distinguish tissue antigens, nucleotide sequences and other chemical compounds on the same slide. Here, we present a practical and economic multiple stain technique, with which multiple cellular components including mRNA (with in situ hybridization), antigen epitope (with immunohistochemistry) and chemical molecules (with histochemistry) can be stained on a single tissue section to study their relationship. In addition, this technique also offers the possibility to evaluate morphology with an H&E staining on the same sections. We used the placenta, pancreas, breast ductal carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, cerebellum, tonsil and heart tissue sections to evaluate the applicability of this new technique. The sensitivity and specificity of the technique have been tested, and an optimal protocol is recommended. Its applications in surgical pathology and research are discussed. This technique offers a novel tool to evaluate the relationship among multiple components at the same or adjacent locations to meet the needs of pathology diagnosis and research. © 2014 Springer-Verlag. Source

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