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Mostaar A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Mostaar A.,Tarbiat Modares University | Hashemi B.,Tarbiat Modares University | Zahmatkesh M.H.,Novin Medical Radiation Institute | And 2 more authors.
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2011

A novel water equivalent formulation of PRESAGE dosimeter more suitable for radiotherapy applications has been introduced and its radiological water equivalency has been investigated. Furthermore, its radiological properties have been compared with an existing PRESAGE formulation over an energy range from 10 to 20MeV. Monte Carlo simulation method has been implemented to determine and compare depth dose profiles in both of the PRESAGE formulations at two different photon energies (140KV P and 6MV). The results show that our proposed PRESAGE formulation is more water equivalent than its known formulation especially for low photon energy beams. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Fazli Z.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Sadeghi M.,Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Iran | Zahmatkesh M.H.,Novin Medical Radiation Institute | Mahdavi S.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Tenreiro C.,University of Suwon
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Purpose: For the treatment of nasopharnx carcinoma (NPC) using brachytherapy methods and high-energy photon sources are common techniques. In the common three dimensional (3D) treatments planning, all of the computed tomography images are assumed homogeneous. This study presents the results of Monte Carlo calculations for non-homogeneous nasopharynx phantom, MAGICA normoxic gel dosimetry and 3D treatment planning system (TPS). Materials and Methods: The head phantom was designed with Plexiglas cylinder, head bone, and nasopharynx brachytherapy silicon applicator. For the simulations, version 5 of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP5) was used. 3D treatment planning was performed in Flexiplan software. A normoxic radiosensitive polymer gel was fabricated under normal atmospheric conditions and poured into test tubes (for calibration curve) and the head phantom. In addition, the head phantom was irradiated with Flexitron afterloader brachytherapy machine with 192 Ir source. To obtain calibration curves, 11 dosimeters were irradiated with dose range of 0-2000 cGy. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on 1.5T scanner. Results: Two-dimensional iso-dose in coronal plan at distances of z = +0.3, -0.3 cm was calculated. There was a good accordance between 3D TPS and MCNP5 simulation and differences in various distances were between 2.4% and 6.1%. There was a predictable accordance between MAGICA gel dosimetry and MCNP5 simulation and differences in various distances were between 5.7% and 7.4%. Moreover, there was an acceptable accordance between MAGICA gel dosimetry and MCNP5 data and differences in various distances were between 5.2% and 9.4%. Conclusion: The sources of differences in this comparison are divided to calculations variation and practical errors that was added in experimental dosimetry. The result of quality assurance of nasopharynx high dose rate brachytherapy is consistent with international standards. Source


Nadi S.,Babol University of Medical Sciences | Shabestani Monfared A.,Babol University of Medical Sciences | Mozdarani H.,Tarbiat Modares University | Mahmodzade A.,Novin Medical Radiation Institute | Pouramir M.,Babol University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2016

Background: Interactions of free radicals from ionizing radiation with DNA can induce DNA damage and lead to mutagenesis and carsinogenesis. With respect to radiation damage to human, it is important to protect humans from side effects induced by ionizing radiation. In the present study,the effects of arbutin were investigated by using the micronucleus test for anti-clastogenic activity, to calculate the ratio of polychromatic erythrocyte to polychromatic erythrocyte plus normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE/PCE+NCE) in order to show cell proliferation activity. Methods: Arbutin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (ip)administered to NMRI mice two hours before gamma radiation at 2 and 4 gray (Gy). The frequency of micronuclei in 1000 PCEs (MnPCEs) and the ratio of PCE/PCE+NCE were calculated for each sample. Data were statistically evaluated using one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test, and t-test. Results: The findings indicated that gamma radiation at 2 and 4 Gy extremely increased the frequencies of MnPCE (P<0.001) while reducing PCE/PCE+NCE (P<0.001) compared to the control group. All three doses of arbutin before irradiation significantly reduced the frequencies of MnPCEs and increased the ratio of PCE/PCE+NCE in mice bone marrow compared to the non-drug-treated irradiated control (P<0.001). All three doses of arbutin had no toxicity effect on bone marrow cells. The calculated dose reduction factor (DRF) showed DRF=1.93 for 2Gy and DRF=2.22 for 4 Gy. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that arbutin gives significant protection to rat bone against the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation. © 2016, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved. Source


Mostaar A.,Tarbiat Modares University | Hashemi B.,Tarbiat Modares University | Zahmatkesh M.H.,Novin Medical Radiation Institute | Aghamiri S.M.R.,Shahid Beheshti University | Mahdavi S.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

Over the past few years there has been much interest in the development of three-dimensional dosimeters to determine the complex absorbed dose distribution in modern radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT and IGRT. In routine methods used for three-dimensional dosimetry, polymer gels are commonly used. Recently, a novel transparent polymer dosimeter, known as PRESAGE, has been introduced in which a radiochromic color change is observed upon radiation. PRESAGE has some advantages over usual polymer gel dosimeters. It has been noted that the sensitivity of PRESAGE can be changed when different amounts of the components are used for its fabrication. This study has focused on the assessment of dosimetric characteristics of PRESAGE for various amounts of components in its formulation. To achieve this, PRESAGE dosimeters were fabricated using various amounts of their constituting components. Then the dosimeters were irradiated to 60Co gamma photons for a range of radiation doses from 0 to 50 Gy. Consequently, the light absorption changes of the dosimeters were measured by a spectrophotometer at different post-irradiation time periods. It was generally observed that as the concentration of the radical initiator is increased, the PRESAGE dosimeter sensitivity is increased while its stability is decreased. Furthermore, it was noted that with the high concentration of the radical initiator and leuco dye, the sensitivity of PRESAGE is decreased. © 2010 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source


Zangeneh M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Mozdarani H.,Tarbiat Modares University | Mahmoudzadeh A.,Novin Medical Radiation Institute
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics | Year: 2015

To investigate the radioprotective effect of the combination of famotidine and vitamin C against radiation-induced micronucleus formation in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes, various doses of famotidine or vitamin C or combinations thereof were administered intraperitoneally to adult male NMRI mice 2 h before 2 and 4 Gy γ-irradiation. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) was scored in 5,000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), and the cell proliferation ratio [PCE/(PCE + NCE); NCE = normochromatic erythrocytes] was also calculated for each treatment group. Data were statistically evaluated using one-way ANOVA test. The results show that pretreatment with various doses of famotidine and vitamin C before γ-irradiation significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs with a protection factor (PF) of 2 and 1.7, respectively. Pretreatment with vitamin C also significantly increased the cell proliferation ratio, while famotidine had no effect. Combination of famotidine and vitamin C was more effective in reducing MnPCEs than each compound alone, leading to a PF of 4.3 after irradiation. Cell proliferation ratio was also significantly improved by the combination compared with the irradiated control groups. Both famotidine and vitamin C are potent scavengers of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, especially OH·. The combination of the two compounds probably further enhances this activity, thus leading to high bone marrow protection. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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