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News Article | July 7, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers and students in the Graphene Flagship are preparing for two exciting experiments in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) to test the viability of graphene for space applications. Researchers and students in the Graphene Flagship are preparing for two exciting experiments in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) to test the viability of graphene for space applications. Both experiments will launch between 6-17th November 2017, testing graphene in zero-gravity conditions to determine its potential in space applications including light propulsion and thermal management. The Graphene Flagship is a pan-European research initiative dedicated to developing new technologies based on graphene, the single-atom-thick allotrope of carbon with excellent electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties. A fundamental aspect of the Graphene Flagship is training students and young researchers. These ambitious space-related experiments are an excellent opportunity for Flagship students and researchers to gain new experiences in cutting-edge research. Join the Graphene Flagship as we follow the progress - from the early stages in the laboratory to the moments of weightlessness! In a fully student-led experiment, a team of Graphene Flagship graduate students from Delft Technical University (TU Delft; Netherlands) will participate in ESA Education's Drop Your Thesis! programme. Their successful proposal will use microgravity conditions in the ZARM Drop Tower (Bremen, Germany) to test graphene for light sails. By shining laser light on suspended graphene-membranes from Flagship partner Graphenea, the experiment will test how much thrust can be generated, which could lead to a new way of propelling satellites in space using light from lasers or the sun. The PhD student team - named GrapheneX - consists of Santiago Cartamil Bueno, Davide Stefani, Vera Janssen, Rocco Gaudenzi, all research students in Herre van der Zant's research group in TU Delft. Santiago Cartamil Bueno, project leader for the GrapheneX team, said "We split tasks between the team and things are working well. We are very ambitious with the quality of the experiments. We really want to do it properly, so we are committed to do real science in this project." ESA Education's Drop Your Thesis! programme offers students the opportunity to design an experiment for the ZARM Drop Tower in Bremen, Germany, which simulates the low gravity and vacuum conditions of space. The 146 m ZARM Drop Tower creates extreme microgravity conditions down to one millionth of the Earth's gravitational force. In vacuum, a capsule containing the experiment is catapulted up and down the tower, providing a total of 9.3 seconds of weightlessness. Running concurrently is an experiment investigating how graphene can improve efficiency in heat transfer in loop heat pipes - cooling systems used extensively in satellites and aerospace instruments. The experiment is a collaboration between Graphene Flagship partners at the Microgravity Research Centre, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium; the Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, UK; Institute for Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Italy; and Leonardo Spa, Italy, a global leader in aerospace, producing of a variety of components and systems for space applications. A significant part of the loop heat pipe is the wick, typically made of porous metal. In this experiment, the wicks will be coated with different types of graphene-related materials to improve the efficiency of the heat pipe. The coated wicks will be tested in a low-gravity parabolic flight operated by ESA in partnership with Novespace, France. During each 3-hour flight, the specially modified plane will make a series of 30 parabolic ascents with around 25 seconds of weightlessness in each parabola. Involved in the experiment are Graphene Flagship researchers Vanja Miškovi? and Fabio Iermano, both working at the Microgravity Research Centre, and Lucia Lombardi and Yarjan Samad, both at the Cambridge Graphene Centre. As well as the on-ground experiments, the young researchers will experience weightlessness on board the low-gravity flights in November. "I'm really excited because this will be my first zero gravity experience," said Lombardi. "The idea is to use graphene to improve the thermal conductivity and the capillary pressure by growing a sponge in the pores of the wicks," she added. "We want to test different kinds of coatings since the graphene and graphene oxide have different properties, but we are hoping to achieve good results with both of the coatings," added Miškovi?. "I'm very excited, I know that not a lot of people get this opportunity." Andrea Ferrari (University of Cambridge), Science and Technology Officer of the Graphene Flagship and chair of its management panel added "Space is the new frontier for the Graphene Flagship. These initial experiments will test the viability of graphene-enabled devices for space applications. The combined strengths of the Graphene Flagship, Flagship partners and the European Space Agency as well global leader in aerospace applications Leonardo, give a strong basis to reach a high technology readiness level." Jari Kinaret (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), Director of the Graphene Flagship, said "These two projects exemplify the two-fold character of the Graphene Flagship: the loop heat pipe project is targeting a specific application, while the light sail project is firmly linked to basic research and builds upon the unique combination of properties that only graphene can offer. I am particularly proud of the fact that one of these projects was initiated by students working on area completely disconnected from space applications: this demonstrates the creativity of the next generation of researchers, and shows the sometimes surprising links between different parts of our Flagship - or maybe I should say spaceship?" Graphene Graphene is one of the most interesting and versatile materials known to date. The world's first two dimensional material, this single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice has a set of unique and outstanding properties. As well as being the thinnest, strongest and lightest material, graphene is flexible, impermeable to molecules and extremely electrically and thermally conductive. As the world strives to maintain its pace of innovation, graphene has much to offer. Graphene is helping to facilitate the next generation of technology. For example, the strong and flexible nature of graphene makes flexible displays and bendable batteries possible. Its excellent sensing ability can be used in the next generation of wearable electronics and to develop building blocks for the internet of things. Graphene's unique combination of properties coupled with its ease of incorporation into composite materials mean that it can enhance the composite world. Graphene is also paving the way for novel diagnosis and treatments such as in the realm of drug delivery and biosensors. Graphene-based technologies are proving integral to the new generation of communications, such as 5G, enabling high performance optical communication systems through ultra-fast and compact optoelectronic devices. About the European Space Agency Education Programme The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Programme has the objective to inspire and motivate young people to enhance their literacy and competence in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM disciplines), and to pursue a career in these fields, in the space domain in particular. To this end, it offers a number of exciting activities that range from training and classroom activities that use space as a teaching and learning context for school teachers and pupils, to real space projects for university students. http://www. http://www. About the European Space Agency The European Space Agency (ESA) is Europe's gateway to space. Its mission is to shape the development of Europe's space capability and ensure that investment in space continues to deliver benefits to the citizens of Europe and the world. ESA is one of the few space agencies in the world to combine responsibility in nearly all areas of space activity: from Earth observation, space science, human spaceflight, exploration and launchers to navigation, telecommunications, technology and operations. ESA is an international organisation with 22 Member States. By coordinating the financial and intellectual resources of its members, it can undertake programmes and activities far beyond the scope of any single European country. http://www. About the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) is a research institute of the University of Bremen focused on the investigation of gravity-dependent phenomena and space-related research. With a height of 146 meters the Bremen Drop Tower is the main laboratory of ZARM and the only laboratory of this kind in Europe. It offers the opportunity for short-term experiments in weightlessness and has acquired international renown during the last 25 years for offering microgravity conditions of the highest quality. Owing to the catapult system, a construction developed by ZARM engineers, the experiment duration has been extended to 9.3 seconds - unmatched by any other drop facility worldwide. Due to its excellent microgravity conditions scientists from all over the world visit the Bremen Drop Tower in order to experiment in different fields of fundamental research like astrophysics, biology, chemistry, combustion, fluid dynamics, fundamental physics, and materials sciences or to conduct technology tests preparing and qualifying hardware for future space missions. http://www. About Novespace A subsidiary of CNES (French Spatial Study National Center), Novespace was established in 1986 for the purpose of promoting micro-weightlessness as a tool for scientific experimentation. After more than 130 parabolic flight campaigns carried out from 1988 to 1996 on board the Caravelle Zero G, Novespace took the Airbus A300 ZERO-G into service in 1997, replaced by an Airbus A310 in 2014, owned by Novespace. Based at the Bordeaux-Mérignac airport zone, Novespace organizes an average of six parabolic flight campaigns annually, principally for the account of space agencies (CNES, ESA, DLR, JAXA, etc.) within the framework of their scientific and technological research programmes. The company also used the A300 ZERO-G for missions for observing atmospheric re-entry of the Cryotechnic Main Stage (CMS) of the Ariane 5 rocket. Novespace has carried out more than 130 parabolic flight campaigns on board the A300 ZERO-G and its successor the A310 ZERO-G and more than 13000 parabolas. This is equivalent to 80 hours of accumulated weightlessness. http://www.


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A year ago, the University of Zurich conducted its first parabolic flight for test purposes from Swiss soil. Now a second aircraft is ready for lift-off to research zero gravity: Saturday, an Airbus A310 ZERO-G is set to take off from the air force base in Dübendorf equipped with scientific experiments from the Universities of Zurich, Basel, Lucerne and ETH Zurich. The aircraft will perform special maneuvers to generate weightlessness in particular zones over the Mediterranean. On these trajectories - alternating between steep climbs and descents - the earth's gravitational pull will be overcome for periods of 22 seconds at a time. Diverse experiments can be conducted on board during these brief phases. Parabolic flights are vital for research under changed gravity: They can yield fundamental insights into the role of gravity in biological or physical processes. For instance, UZH is studying how human tissue reacts to the lack of oxygen in zero gravity - a key question for space walks; Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts is using electrophysical tests to research the mechanisms involved in the perception of gravity by cells; a team of chiropractors from Balgrist University Hospital is testing functional connections in the development of back disorders, which can be identified more effectively in zero gravity; and another experiment conducted by ETH Zurich is devoted to the role of gravity in phytoplankton behavior, which should help improve our understanding of one of the most important oceanic microorganisms on earth. Besides these "terrestrial" experiments, however, one is also aimed into space: The University of Basel is testing sedimentation behavior in Mars' gravity, thereby obtaining crucial data for the calibration of mathematical models with a view to reconstructing the planet's environmental history. The research flight is also attractive for the space industry: An experiment conducted by the Swiss start-up SpacePharma is testing scientific hardware designed for use on small satellites. "Thanks to these research missions, Swiss Parabolic Flights, which were initiated by UZH, have taken root in Switzerland," says Professor Oliver Ullrich from the University of Zurich. He runs the Platform for Scientific Research in Zero Gravity, which is also backed by the Swiss Space Office of the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation. The flexible combination of research from universities, industrial experiments and private individuals enables the costs of the flight to be minimized for science. These research flights into zero gravity are made possible by the close collaboration between Novespace, a subsidiary of the French space agency CNES, the Swiss Air Force, the Air Force Center in Dübendorf, Swissport and the Swiss SkyLab Foundation.


Pletser V.,European Space Agency | Rouquette S.,French National Center for Space Studies | Friedrich U.,German Aerospace Center | Clervoy J.-F.,Novespace | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2015

Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 s of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the Chinese Space Station CSS. The European Space Agency (ESA), the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency) and the 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Centre) have used the Airbus A300 ZERO-G for research experiments in microgravity, and at Moon and Mars gravity levels, from 1997 until October 2014. The French company Novespace, a subsidiary of CNES, based in Bordeaux, France, is in charge of the organisation of Airbus A300 ZERO-G flights. A total of 104 parabolic flight campaigns have been organised by ESA, CNES and DLR since 1997, including 38 ESA, 34 CNES and 23 DLR microgravity campaigns, two Joint European ESA-CNES-DLR Partial-g Parabolic Flight Campaigns, and seven ESA Student campaigns. After 17 years of good and loyal services, this European workhorse for microgravity research in parabolic flights has been retired. The successor aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, is being prepared for a first ESA-CNES-DLR cooperative campaign in Spring 2015. This paper looks back over 17 years of microgravity research in parabolic flights with the A300 ZERO-G, and introduces the new A310 ZERO-G that will be used from 2015 onwards. © 2015 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pletser V.,European Space Agency | Rouquette S.,French National Center for Space Studies | Friedrich U.,German Aerospace Center | Clervoy J.-F.,Novespace | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2013

Aircraft parabolic flights provide repetitively short periods of reduced gravity and are used to conduct scientific and technology microgravity investigations, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. Since 1997, CNES, DLR and ESA use the Airbus A300 ZERO-G, currently the largest airplane in the world for this type of experimental research flight. This mean is managed by the French company Novespace. Since 2010, Novespace offers the possibility of flying reduced gravity levels equivalent to those on the Moon and Mars. To answer an increasing request of scientists to conduct experiments at intermediate levels of gravity (between 0 and 1 g) to better study the influence of gravity and to prepare for research and exploration during space flights and future planetary exploration missions, CNES, DLR and ESA organized two Joint European Partial-g Parabolic Flight campaigns in June 2011 and December 2012. During these two campaigns, parabolas were flown during three flights on each campaign providing micro-, Moon and Mars gravity levels with duration typically of 20s, 25s and 32s with a mixed complement of investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology. The paper will present the approach taken to organise these two campaigns and the sixteen experiments conducted in total, with some preliminary results to show the interest of this unique research tool for microgravity and partial gravity investigations.


Pletser V.,European Space Agency | Rouquette S.,French National Center for Space Studies | Friedrich U.,German Aerospace Center | Clervoy J.-F.,Novespace | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2015

Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 seconds of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the Chinese Space Station CSS. The European Space Agency (ESA), the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency) and the 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Centre) have used the Airbus A300 ZERO-G for research experiments in microgravity, and at Moon and Mars gravity levels, from 1997 until October 2014. The French company Novespace, a subsidiary of CNES, based in Bordeaux, France, is in charge of the organisation of Airbus A300 ZERO-G flights. A total of 104 parabolic flight campaigns have been organised by ESA, CNES and DLR since 1997, including 38 ESA, 34 CNES and 23 DLR microgravity campaigns, two Joint European ESA-CNES-DLR Partial-g Parabolic Flight Campaigns, and seven ESA Student campaigns. After 17 years of good and loyal services, this European workhorse for microgravity research in parabolic flights has been retired. The successor aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, is being prepared for a first ESA-CNES-DLR cooperative campaign in Spring 2015. This paper looks back over 17 years of microgravity research in parabolic flights with the A300 ZERO-G, and attempts to give an overview of the scientific outcome of these more than 100 campaigns.


Pletser V.,European Space Agency | Rouquette S.,French National Center for Space Studies | Friedrich U.,German Aerospace Center | Clervoy J.-F.,Novespace | And 3 more authors.
Microgravity Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 seconds of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the future Chinese Space Station. After 17 years of using the Airbus A300 ZERO-G, the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the ’Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales’ (CNES, French Space Agency), based in Bordeaux, France, purchased a new aircraft, an Airbus A310, to perform parabolic flights for microgravity research in Europe. Since April 2015, the European Space Agency (ESA), CNES and the ‘Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.’ (DLR, the German Aerospace Center) use this new aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, for research experiments in microgravity. The first campaign was a Cooperative campaign shared by the three agencies, followed by respectively a CNES, an ESA and a DLR campaign. This paper presents the new Airbus A310 ZERO-G and its main characteristics and interfaces for scientific experiments. The experiments conducted during the first European campaign are presented. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Pletser V.,European Space Agency | Winter J.,European Space Agency | Duclos F.,French National Center for Space Studies | Bret-Dibat T.,French National Center for Space Studies | And 6 more authors.
Microgravity Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Aircraft parabolic flights provide repetitively short periods of reduced gravity and are used to conduct scientific and technology microgravity investigations, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. Since 1997, ESA, CNES and DLR use the Airbus A300 ZERO-G, currently the largest airplane in the world for this type of experimental research flight. This mean is managed by the French company Novespace. Since 2010, Novespace offers the possibility of flying reduced gravity levels equivalent to those on the Moon and Mars achieved repetitively for periods of more than 20 s. ESA, CNES and DLR issued an international call for experiments inviting European Scientists to submit experiment proposals to be conducted at these partial gravity levels. The scientific objectives are on one hand to obtain results at intermediate levels of gravity (between 0 and 1 g) allowing a better study of the influence of gravity, and on the other hand to give them some elements to prepare for research and exploration during space flights and future planetary exploration missions. ESA, CNES and DLR jointly organised in June 2011 the first Joint European Partial-G Parabolic Flight campaign with 13 experiments selected among 42 received proposals. Parabolas were flown during three flights providing micro-, Moon and Mars gravity levels with duration typically of 20 s, 25 s and 32 s with a mixed complement of investigations in physical and life sciences and in technology. The paper presents the approach taken to organise this campaign and the 13 selected experiments with some preliminary results are presented to show the interest of this unique research tool for microgravity and partial gravity investigations. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


News Article | December 14, 2016
Site: physicsworld.com

"Weightless" experiments that compare the gravitational acceleration of two different quantum objects have been performed by physicists in France. Carried out in free fall on board an aircraft undergoing a parabolic trajectory, the tests were far too insensitive to test the long-held idea that all bodies fall at the same rate (in a vacuum) in a given gravitational field. However, the research could lead to far more powerful space-based experiments and might also result in the development of new navigational aids. The universality of free fall is a consequence of the equivalence principle, which lies at the heart of Einstein's general theory of relativity. It states that inertial and gravitational mass are equal, which means that a body's mass – or indeed its internal structure – has no bearing on its acceleration in a gravitational field. Therefore two bodies with different masses or compositions will accelerate at the same rate. Universality has been tested to ever greater precision since Galileo's mythical experiment at the Leaning Tower of Pisa – and, so far, has never failed. The most precise experiment to date was carried out in 2008 by researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle, who found that universality held to one part in 1013. Physicists would like to boost precision by at least a factor of 100, since it as this level that some theories beyond the Standard Model of particle physics predict that the universality of free fall will break down. In fact, one space mission already in orbit around the Earth – the Micro-Satellite à traînée Compensée pour l'Observation du Principe d'Equivalence (Microscope), developed by the French National Centre for Space Studies (CNES) – is designed to reach a sensitivity of about 10–15 and could produce its first significant results early next year. Microscope takes advantage of the fact that orbiting satellites are in free fall towards the Earth. Therefore objects inside the satellite are themselves in free fall for far longer than any mass dropped on Earth. This means that acceleration measurements can in principle reach very high sensitivities. Microscope, like the University of Washington experiment, studies the free fall of large "classical objects". In contrast, the latest work, carried out by Philippe Bouyer and Brynle Barrett of the LP2N laboratory in Bordeaux and colleagues, uses "quantum objects". These are extremely cold clouds of two types of atom: rubidium-87 and potassium-39. Atomic systems have a number of advantages over macroscopic objects, according to Bouyer, including the fact that there is no possibility of contamination by unknown quantities of impurities. Also, spin and other quantum-mechanical properties of the atoms can be varied to see if this causes a violation of the equivalence principle. The rubidium and potassium atoms are allowed to fall under the influence of gravity. As they drop they are struck by lasers, which acting as a beam splitter for matter, causes the atoms' wave packets to split and follow two vertical paths at the same time. At the end of their trajectory, the two states interfere with one another, producing an interference fringe. Comparing the position of the fringes produced by the rubidium and potassium then allows the researchers to establish whether the two different types of atom have undergone different relative phase shifts and hence experienced very slightly different accelerations. Physicists have previously used cold-atom interferometers to investigate the universality of free fall, having achieved sensitivities of around 10–8, but these experiments were performed on the ground. As with classical tests, the ultimate aim is to go into space. Bouyer and colleagues haven't yet managed that, but have instead taken advantage of the near weightless conditions on board a specially adapted Airbus aeroplane owned by French company Novespace. The "zero-G" aircraft undergoes free fall for about 20 s at a time by climbing at an angle of around 45° and then cutting its engines just enough to cancel its air drag, so that it traces out a parabola as it accelerates downwards under gravity. The plane then drops, noses up again and traces out another free-fall parabola, repeating the cycle many times over. Bouyer and colleagues have carried out nearly 10 years of painstaking work on many parabolic flights to stabilize their complex equipment in the noisy environment of the aircraft. This allowed them to perform tests on rubidium-87. Now, the team has compared the behaviour of two different types of atom over the course of six flights last year. Barrett says that the work relies on a number of technical innovations to reduce the effects of on-board vibrations, which can reach about 0.01 g, and the aircraft's rapid rotation, which can get up to one revolution per minute during a parabola. Noting that he and his colleagues tested the universality of free fall with a modest sensitivity of just 3 ×10–4, he says that the importance of the work was in showing the suitability of their set-up for space-based tests. "The techniques we developed here could be exploited by many experiments over the next few years," he predicts. The team's next step is to carry out new tests early next year to show how single atoms could be used for "inertial" navigation, which involves continually monitoring a body's acceleration and rotation over time. Beyond that, some group members are also working to exploit the interferometer technology on a mission known as the Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST). But according to Bouyer, the roughly €500m satellite will not launch until at least 2025. "It is a big, long term project," he says. The research is described in Nature Communications.


Chavagnac C.,Astrium Space Transportation Business Unit | Gai F.,Novespace | Gharib T.,Novespace | Mora C.,Novespace
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2013

Since years Novespace and Astrium are discussing mutual interest in cooperating together when considering Novespace well established capabilities and the ongoing development of the Astrium Spaceplane and its unique features. Indeed both companies are proposing service for non-public missions which require microgravity environment especially. It relies on assets of both parties: Novespace in operating 0-G aircraft platforms for the sake of the European scientific community for decades; Astrium and its Spaceplane currently in pre-development phase. Novespace and its Airbus A300 Zero-G exhibit a unique know-how in Europe for operating scientific payload on aeronautic platform(s). Moreover Astrium is preparing the development of a safe and passenger friendly Spaceplane, taking off and landing from a standard airport runway powered by turbofans and using a rocket engine of proven design to reach 100 km altitude. The paper details the joint service offered and the added value of the partnership of Novespace and Astrium for various end-users. In addition longer duration of on-board microgravity periods and ultra high altitude features of the Astrium Spaceplane mission expand the scope of possible non-public applications which includes e.g.: Earth system science and probing of uncharted layers of Earth atmosphere on a regular basis and in various locations worldwide; Spaceflight crew training. © 2013 IAA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Trademark
Novespace | Date: 2014-10-10

Vehicles; apparatus for locomotion by land, air or water. Transport; travel arrangement. Education; training; entertainment; sporting and cultural activities; organization of competitions (education or entertainment).

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