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Châteauneuf-Grasse, France

Aubert M.,IRSTEA | Baghdadi N.,IRSTEA | Zribi M.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | Douaoui A.,Roche Holding AG | And 4 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2011

Soils play a key role in shaping the environment and in risk assessment. We characterized the soils of bare agricultural plots using TerraSAR-X (9.5. GHz) data acquired in 2009 and 2010. We analyzed the behavior of the TerraSAR-X signal for two configurations, HH-25° and HH-50°, with regard to several soil conditions: moisture content, surface roughness, soil composition and soil-surface structure (slaking crust).The TerraSAR-X signal was more sensitive to soil moisture at a low (25°) incidence angle than at a high incidence angle (50°). For high soil moisture (>25%), the TerraSAR-X signal was more sensitive to soil roughness at a high incidence angle (50°) than at a low incidence angle (25°).The high spatial resolution of the TerraSAR-X data (1. m) enabled the soil composition and slaking crust to be analyzed at the within-plot scale based on the radar signal. The two loamy-soil categories that composed our training plots did not differ sufficiently in their percentages of sand and clay to be discriminated by the X-band radar signal.However, the spatial distribution of slaking crust could be detected when soil moisture variation is observed between soil crusted and soil without crust. Indeed, areas covered by slaking crust could have greater soil moisture and consequently a greater backscattering signal than soils without crust. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Horwath M.,LEGOS | Horwath M.,TU Munich | Horwath M.,French National Center for Space Studies | Lemoine J.-M.,French National Center for Space Studies | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2011

The GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite mission relies on the inter-satellite K-band microwave ranging (KBR) observations. We investigate systematic errors that are present in the Level-1B KBR data, namely in the geometric correction. This correction converts the original ranging observation (between the two KBR antennas phase centers) into an observation between the two satellites' centers of mass. It is computed from data on the precise alignment between both satellites, that is, between the lines joining the center of mass and the antenna phase center of either satellite. The Level-1B data used to determine this alignment exhibit constant biases as large as 1-2 mrad in terms of pitch and yaw alignment angles. These biases induce non-constant errors in the Level-1B geometric correction. While the precise origin of the biases remains to be identified, we are able to estimate and reduce them in a re-calibration approach. This significantly improves time-variable gravity field solutions based on the CNES/GRGS processing strategy. Empirical assessments indicate that the systematic KBR data errors have previously induced gravity field errors on the level of 6-11 times the so-called GRACE baseline error level. The zonal coefficients (from degree 14) are particularly affected. The re-calibration reduces their rms errors by about 50%. As examples for geophysical inferences, the improvement enhances agreement between mass variations observed by GRACE and in-situ ocean bottom pressure observations. The improvement also importantly affects estimates of inter-annual mass variations of the Antarctic ice sheet. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Ramillien G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Biancale R.,French National Center for Space Studies | Gratton S.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Vasseur X.,European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation | Bourgogne S.,NOVELTIS
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2011

We propose an unconstrained approach to recover regional time-variations of surface mass anomalies using Level-1 Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) orbit observations, for reaching spatial resolutions of a few hundreds of kilometers. Potential differences between the twin GRACE vehicles are determined along short satellite tracks using the energy integral method (i.e., integration of orbit parameters vs. time) in a quasi-inertial terrestrial reference frame. Potential differences residuals corresponding mainly to changes in continental hydrology are then obtained after removing the gravitational effects of the known geophysical phenomena that are mainly the static part of the Earth's gravity field and time-varying contributions to gravity (Sun, Moon, planets, atmosphere, ocean, tides, variations of Earth's rotation axis) through ad hoc models. Regional surface mass anomalies are restored from potential difference anomalies of 10 to 30-day orbits onto 1° continental grids by regularization techniques based on singular value decomposition. Error budget analysis has been made by considering the important effects of spectrum truncation, the time length of observation (or spatial coverage of the data to invert) and for different levels of noise. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Hungershoefer K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hungershoefer K.,German Weather Service | Peylin P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chevallier F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

In the context of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, and the potential feedbacks between climate and the carbon cycle, there is an urgent need to monitor the exchanges of carbon between the atmosphere and both the ocean and the land surfaces. In the so-called top-down approach, the surface fluxes of CO2 are inverted from the observed spatial and temporal concentration gradients. The concentrations of CO2 are measured in-situ at a number of surface stations unevenly distributed over the Earth while several satellite missions may be used to provide a dense and better-distributed set of observations to complement this network. In this paper, we compare the ability of different CO2 concentration observing systems to constrain surface fluxes. The various systems are based on realistic scenarios of sampling and precision for satellite and in-situ measurements.
It is shown that satellite measurements based on the differential absorption technique (such as those of SCIAMACHY, GOSAT or OCO) provide more information than the thermal infrared observations (such as those of AIRS or IASI). The OCO observations will provide significantly better information than those of GOSAT. A CO2 monitoring mission based on an active (lidar) technique could potentially provide an even better constraint. This constraint can also be realized with the very dense surface network that could be built with the same funding as that of the active satellite mission. Despite the large uncertainty reductions on the surface fluxes that may be expected from these various observing systems, these reductions are still insufficient to reach the highly demanding requirements for the monitoring of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 or the oceanic fluxes at a spatial scale smaller than that of oceanic basins. The scientific objective of these observing system should therefore focus on the fluxes linked to vegetation and land ecosystem dynamics. © 2010 Author(s). Source


Ramillien G.L.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Ramillien G.L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Seoane L.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Frappart F.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | And 5 more authors.
Surveys in Geophysics | Year: 2012

We propose a "constrained" least-squares approach to estimate regional maps of equivalent-water heights by inverting GRACE-based potential anomalies at satellite altitude. According to the energy integral method, the anomalies of difference of geopotential between the two GRACE vehicles are derived from along-track K-Band Range-Rate (KBRR) residuals that correspond mainly to the continental water storage changes, once a priori known accelerations (i. e. static field, polar movements, atmosphere and ocean masses including tides) are removed during the orbit adjustment process. Newton's first law merely enables the Difference of Potential Anomalies from accurate KBRR data and the equivalent-water heights to be recovered. Spatial constraints versus spherical distance between elementary surface tiles are introduced to stabilize the linear system to cancel the effects of the north-south striping. Unlike the "mascons" approach, no basis of orthogonal functions (e. g., spherical harmonics) is used, so that the proposed regional method does not suffer from drawbacks related to any spectrum truncation. Time series of 10-day regional maps over South America for 2006-2009 also prove to be consistent with independent data sets, namely the outputs of hydrological models, "mascons" and global GRACE solutions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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