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Tan Y.,Harvard University | Zanoni I.,Harvard University | Zanoni I.,University of Milan Bicocca | Zanoni I.,Humanitas Clinical and Research Center | And 4 more authors.

Microbe-induced receptor trafficking has emerged as an essential means to promote innate immune signal transduction. Upon detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), CD14 induces an inflammatory endocytosis pathway that delivers Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to endosomes. Although several regulators of CD14-dependent TLR4 endocytosis have been identified, the cargo-selection mechanism during this process remains unknown. We reveal that, in contrast to classic cytosolic interactions that promoted the endocytosis of transmembrane receptors, TLR4 was selected as cargo for inflammatory endocytosis entirely through extracellular interactions. Mechanistically, the extracellular protein MD-2 bound to and dimerized TLR4 in order to promote this endocytic event. Our analysis of LPS variants from human pathogens and gut commensals revealed a common mechanism by which bacteria prevent inflammatory endocytosis. We suggest that evasion of CD14-dependent endocytosis is an attribute that transcends the concept of pathogenesis and might be a fundamental feature of bacteria that inhabit eukaryotic hosts. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Venkannagari S.,University of Kansas | Fiskus W.,University of Kansas | Peth K.,University of Kansas | Atadja P.,Novartis Institute for BioMedical Research Inc. | And 3 more authors.

Genetic alterations activating K-RAS and PI3K/AKT signaling are also known to induce the activity of mTOR kinase through TORC1 and TORC2 complexes in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, we determined the effects of the dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235 (BEZ235), and the pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (PS) against human PDAC cells. Treatment with BEZ235 or PS inhibited cell cycle progression with induction of the cell cycle inhibitory proteins, p21waf1 and p27kip1. BEZ235 and PS also dose dependently induced loss of cell viability of the cultured PDAC cells, associated with depletion of phosphorylated (p) AKT, as well as of the TORC1 substrates 4EBP1 and p70S6 kinase. While inhibiting p-AKT, treatment with PS induced the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins BIM and BAK. Co-treatment with BEZ235 and PS synergistically induced apoptosis of the cultured PDAC cells. This was accompanied by marked attenuation of the levels of p-AKT and Bcl-xL but induction of BIM. Although in vivo treatment with BEZ235 or PS reduced tumor growth, co-treatment with BEZ235 and PS was significantly more effective in controlling the xenograft growth of Panc1 PDAC cells in the nude mice. Furthermore, co-treatment with BEZ235 and PS more effectively blocked tumor growth of primary PDAC heterotransplants (possessing K-RAS mutation and AKT2 amplification) subcutaneously implanted in the nude mice than each agent alone. These findings demonstrate superior activity and support further in vivo evaluation of combined treatment with BEZ235 and PS against PDAC that possess heightened activity of RAS-RAF-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. © Venkannagari et al. Source

Cheng G.,Harvard University | Cheng G.,BeiGene Co Ltd. | Liao S.,Harvard University | Wong H.K.,Harvard University | And 8 more authors.

Rapid blood perfusion is critical for postimplantation survival of thick, prevascularized bioartificial tissues. Yet the mechanism by which implanted vascular networks inosculate, or anastomose, with the host vasculature has been unknown, making it difficult to develop optimized strategies for facilitating perfusion. Here we show that implanted vascular networks anastomose with host vessels through a previously unidentified process of "wrapping and tapping" between the engrafted endothelial cells (ECs) and the host vasculature. At the host-implant interface, implanted ECs first wrap around nearby host vessels and then cause basement membrane and pericyte reorganization and localized displacement of the underlying host endothelium. In this way, the implanted ECs replace segments of host vessels to divert blood flow to the developing implanted vascular network. The process is facilitated by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase-14 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressed by the wrapping ECs. These findings open the door to new strategies for improving perfusion of tissue grafts and may have implications for other physiologic and pathologic processes involving postnatal vasculogenesis. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Rao R.,University of Kansas | Nalluri S.,Georgia Regents University | Fiskus W.,University of Kansas | Savoie A.,Georgia Regents University | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research

Purpose: Bortezomib induces unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulumstress, as well as exhibits clinical activity in patients with relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here, we determined the molecular basis of the improved in vitro and in vivo activity of the combination of the panhistone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat and bortezomib againsthuman, cultured, and primary MCL cells. Experimental Design: Immunoblot analyses, reverse transcription-PCR, and immunofluorescent and electron microscopy were used to determine the effects of panobinostat on bortezomib-induced aggresome formation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in MCL cells. Results: Treatment with panobinostat induced heat shock protein 90 acetylation; depleted the levels of heat shock protein 90 client proteins, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, c-RAF, and AKT; and abrogated bortezomib-induced aggresome formation in MCL cells. Panobinostat also induced lethal UPR, associated with induction of CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Conversely, knockdown of CHOP attenuated panobinostat-induced cell death of MCL cells. Compared with each agent alone, cotreatment with panobinostat increased bortezomib-induced expression of CHOP and NOXA, as well as increased bortezomib-induced UPR and apoptosis of cultured and primary MCL cells. Cotreatment with panobinostat also increased bortezomib-mediated in vivo tumor growth inhibition and improved survival of mice bearing human Z138C MCL cell xenograft. Conclusion: These findings suggest that increased UPR and induction of CHOP are involved in enhanced anti-MCL activity of the combination of panobinostat and bortezomib. ©2010 AACR. Source

Rao R.,University of Kansas | Balusu R.,University of Kansas | Fiskus W.,University of Kansas | Mudunuru U.,University of Kansas | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDI) induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis, while promoting autophagy, which promotes cancer cell survival when apoptosis is compromised. Here, we determined the in vitro and in vivo activity of the combination of the pan-HDI panobinostat and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine against human estrogen/progesterone receptor and HER2 (triple)-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Treatment of MB-231 and SUM159PT cells with panobinostat disrupted the hsp90/histone deacetylase 6/HSF1/p97 complex, resulting in the upregulation of hsp. This was accompanied by the induction of enhanced autophagic flux as evidenced by increased expression of LC3B-II and the degradation of the autophagic substrate p62. Treatment with panobinostat also induced the accumulation and colocalization of p62 with LC3B-II in cytosolic foci as evidenced by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Inhibition of panobinostat-induced autophagic flux by chloroquine markedly induced the accumulation of polyubiquitylated proteins and p62, caused synergistic cell death of MB-231 and SUM159PT cells, and inhibited mammosphere formation in MB-231 cells, compared with treatment with each agent alone. Finally, in mouse mammary fat pad xenografts of MB-231 cells, a tumor size-dependent induction of heat shock response, ER stress and autophagy were observed. Cotreatment with panobinostat and chloroquine resulted in reduced tumor burden and increased the survival of MB-231 breast cancer xenografts. Collectively, our findings show that cotreatment with an autophagy inhibitor and pan-HDI, for example, chloroquine and panobinostat results in accumulation of toxic polyubiquitylated proteins, exerts superior inhibitory effects on TNBC cell growth, and increases the survival of TNBC xenografts. ©2012 AACR. Source

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