Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland, ranking number one in sales among the world-wide industry in 2013.Novartis manufactures such drugs as clozapine , diclofenac , carbamazepine , valsartan and imatinib mesylate . Additional agents include cyclosporin , letrozole , methylphenidate , terbinafine , and others.In 1996 Ciba-Geigy merged with Sandoz, with the pharmaceutical and agrochemical divisions of both staying together to form Novartis. Other Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz businesses were sold off, or, like Ciba Specialty Chemicals, were spun off as independent companies. The Sandoz brand disappeared for 3 years, but was revived in 2003 when Novartis consolidated its generic drugs businesses into a single subsidiary and named it Sandoz. Novartis divested its agrochemical and genetically modified crops business in 2000 with the spinout of Syngenta in partnership with AstraZeneca, which also divested its agrochemical business.Novartis is a full member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations , and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America . Wikipedia.
Molecular Autism | Year: 2012
Microdeletion and microduplication copy number variations are found in patients with autism spectrum disorder and in a number of cases they include genes that are involved in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (for example, FZD9, BCL9 or CDH8). Association studies investigating WNT2, DISC1, MET, DOCK4 or AHI1 also provide evidence that the canonical Wnt pathway might be affected in autism. Prenatal medication with sodium-valproate or antidepressant drugs increases autism risk. In animal studies, it has been found that these medications promote Wnt signaling, including among others an increase in Wnt2 gene expression. Notably, the available genetic information indicates that not only canonical Wnt pathway activation, but also inhibition seems to increase autism risk. The canonical Wnt pathway plays a role in dendrite growth and suboptimal activity negatively affects the dendritic arbor. In principle, this provides a logical explanation as to why both hypo- and hyperactivity may generate a similar set of behavioral and cognitive symptoms. However, without a validated biomarker to stratify for deviant canonical Wnt pathway activity, it is probably too dangerous to treat patients with compounds that modify pathway activity. © 2012 Kalkman; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Organic Letters | Year: 2012
A highly enantioselective chiral Brønsted acid catalyzed propargylation of aldehydes with allenylboronate is described. The reaction is shown to be practical and quite general with a broad substrate scope covering aryl, polyaryl, heteroaryl, α,β-unsaturated, and aliphatic aldehydes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Baron R.,Harvard University |
Nature Medicine | Year: 2013
Low bone mass and strength lead to fragility fractures, for example, in elderly individuals affected by osteoporosis or children with osteogenesis imperfecta. A decade ago, rare human mutations affecting bone negatively (osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome) or positively (high-bone mass phenotype, sclerosteosis and Van Buchem disease) have been identified and found to all reside in components of the canonical WNT signaling machinery. Mouse genetics confirmed the importance of canonical Wnt signaling in the regulation of bone homeostasis, with activation of the pathway leading to increased, and inhibition leading to decreased, bone mass and strength. The importance of WNT signaling for bone has also been highlighted since then in the general population in numerous genome-wide association studies. The pathway is now the target for therapeutic intervention to restore bone strength in millions of patients at risk for fracture. This paper reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms by which WNT signalng regulates bone homeostasis. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2013
Aside from established genetic evidence, the best proof of a model for disease pathogenesis rests on predicted perturbation via targeted medicines in clinical trials. Here, I discuss the strategy of performing exploratory first-in-human clinical studies on mechanistically homogeneous populations (often small groups of patients with rare diseases) as a routine entrance to full-registration clinical trials. Over the past decade, this approach has proved some pathogenic theories, disproved others, and guided investigators in new scientif c directions. The immediate advantages have been smaller trials and provision of new treatments for rare diseases. Later, indications often can be expanded to subsets of more common diseases. Copyright © 2013, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Cell | Year: 2011
In the era of next-generation sequencing, there are significant challenges to harnessing cancer genome information to develop novel therapies. Key research thrusts in both academia and industry will speed this transition, and lessons learned for cancer will more broadly shape the process for genetic contributions to the therapy of disease more broadly. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.