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Östermalm, Sweden

Asplund A.,Cellartis | Asplund A.,University of Skovde | Pradip A.,Cellartis | Pradip A.,Novo Nordisk AS | And 21 more authors.
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports | Year: 2016

Human hepatocytes display substantial functional inter-individual variation regarding drug metabolizing functions. In order to investigate if this diversity is mirrored in hepatocytes derived from different human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, we evaluated 25 hPSC lines originating from 24 different donors for hepatic differentiation and functionality. Homogenous hepatocyte cultures could be derived from all hPSC lines using one standardized differentiation procedure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a standardized hepatic differentiation procedure that is generally applicable across a large panel of hPSC lines without any adaptations to individual lines. Importantly, with regard to functional aspects, such as Cytochrome P450 activities, we observed that hepatocytes derived from different hPSC lines displayed inter-individual variation characteristic for primary hepatocytes obtained from different donors, while these activities were highly reproducible between repeated experiments using the same line. Taken together, these data demonstrate the emerging possibility to compile panels of hPSC-derived hepatocytes of particular phenotypes/genotypes relevant for drug metabolism and toxicity studies. Moreover, these findings are of significance for applications within the regenerative medicine field, since our stringent differentiation procedure allows the derivation of homogenous hepatocyte cultures from multiple donors which is a prerequisite for the realization of future personalized stem cell based therapies. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Holmgren G.,University of Skovde | Holmgren G.,Gothenburg University | Sjogren A.-K.,Astrazeneca | Barragan I.,Karolinska Institutet | And 10 more authors.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2014

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the potential to become important tools for the establishment of new models for in vitro drug testing of, for example, toxicity and pharmacological effects. Late-stage attrition in the pharmaceutical industry is to a large extent caused by selection of drug candidates using nonpredictive preclinical models that are not clinically relevant. The current hepatic in vivo and in vitro models show clear limitations, especially for studies of chronic hepatotoxicity. For these reasons, we evaluated the potential of using hPSC-derived hepatocytes for long-term exposure to toxic drugs. The differentiated hepatocytes were incubated with hepatotoxic compounds for up to 14 days, using a repeated-dose approach. The hPSC-derived hepatocytes became more sensitive to the toxic compounds after extended exposures and, in addition to conventional cytotoxicity, evidence of phospholipidosis and steatosis was also observed in the cells. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of a longterm toxicity study using hPSC-derived hepatocytes, and the observations support further development and validation of hPSC-based toxicity models for evaluating novel drugs, chemicals, and cosmetics. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source


Godoy P.,TU Dortmund | Godoy P.,University of Concepcion | Schmidt-Heck W.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Natarajan K.,University of Cologne | And 19 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims The differentiation of stem cells to hepatocyte-like cells (HLC) offers the perspective of unlimited supply of human hepatocytes. However, the degree of differentiation of HLC remains controversial. To obtain an unbiased characterization, we performed a transcriptomic study with HLC derived from human embryonic and induced stem cells (ESC, hiPSC) from three different laboratories. Methods Genome-wide gene expression profiles of ESC and HLC were compared to freshly isolated and up to 14 days cultivated primary human hepatocytes. Gene networks representing successful and failed hepatocyte differentiation, and the transcription factors involved in their regulation were identified. Results Gene regulatory network analysis demonstrated that HLC represent a mixed cell type with features of liver, intestine, fibroblast and stem cells. The "unwanted" intestinal features were associated with KLF5 and CDX2 transcriptional networks. Cluster analysis identified highly correlated groups of genes associated with mature liver functions (n = 1057) and downregulated proliferation associated genes (n = 1562) that approach levels of primary hepatocytes. However, three further clusters containing 447, 101, and 505 genes failed to reach levels of hepatocytes. Key TF of two of these clusters include SOX11, FOXQ1, and YBX3. The third unsuccessful cluster, controlled by HNF1, CAR, FXR, and PXR, strongly overlaps with genes repressed in cultivated hepatocytes compared to freshly isolated hepatocytes, suggesting that current in vitro conditions lack stimuli required to maintain gene expression in hepatocytes, which consequently also explains a corresponding deficiency of HLC. Conclusions The present gene regulatory network approach identifies key transcription factors which require modulation to improve HLC differentiation. © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Source


Joshi M.,Laboratory for Transplantation Biology and Regenerative Medicine | Oltean M.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Patil P.B.,Laboratory for Transplantation Biology and Regenerative Medicine | Hallberg D.,Laboratory for Transplantation Biology and Regenerative Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cells Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

Effective repopulation of the liver is essential for successful clinical hepatocyte transplantation. The objective was to improve repopulation of the liver with human hepatocytes using chemokines. We used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry assays to identify commonly expressed chemokine receptors on humanfetal and adult hepatocytes. The migratory capacity of the cells to various chemokines was tested. For in vivo studies,weused a nude mouse model of partial hepatectomy followed by intraparenchymal injections of chemokine ligands at various concentrations. Human fetal liver cells transformed with human telomerase reverse transcriptase were used for intrasplenic cell transplantation. Repopulation and functionality were assessed 4 weeks after transplantation. The receptor CXCR3 was commonly expressed on both fetal and adult hepatocytes. Both cell types migrated efficiently toward corresponding CXC chemokine ligands 9, 10, and 11. In vivo, animals injected with recombinant chemokines showed the highest cell engraftment compared with controls (p <.05). The engrafted cells expressed several human hepatic markers such as cytokeratin 8 and 18 and albumin as well as transferrin, UGT1A1, hepatocyte nuclear factor (1α, 1β, and 4α), cytochrome CYP3A1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (α and β), and human albumin compared with controls. No inflammatory cells were detected in the livers at 4 weeks after transplantation. The improved repopulation of transplanted cells is likely a function of the chemokines to mediate cell homing and retention in the injured liver and might be an attractive strategy to augment repopulation of transplanted hepatocytes in vivo. © AlphaMed Press. Source


Ghosheh N.,University of Skovde | Ghosheh N.,Gothenburg University | Olsson B.,University of Skovde | Edsbagge J.,Takara Bio Europe AB | And 11 more authors.
Stem Cells International | Year: 2016

Human pluripotent stem cells- (hPSCs-) derived hepatocytes have the potential to replace many hepatic models in drug discovery and provide a cell source for regenerative medicine applications. However, the generation of fully functional hPSC-derived hepatocytes is still a challenge. Towards gaining better understanding of the differentiation and maturation process, we employed a standardized protocol to differentiate six hPSC lines into hepatocytes and investigated the synchronicity of the hPSC lines by applying RT-qPCR to assess the expression of lineage-specific genes (OCT4, NANOG, T, SOX17, CXCR4, CER1, HHEX, TBX3, PROX1, HNF6, AFP, HNF4a, KRT18, ALB, AAT, and CYP3A4) which serve as markers for different stages during liver development. The data was evaluated using correlation and clustering analysis, demonstrating that the expression of these markers is highly synchronized and correlated well across all cell lines. The analysis also revealed a distribution of the markers in groups reflecting the developmental stages of hepatocytes. Functional analysis of the differentiated cells further confirmed their hepatic phenotype. Taken together, these results demonstrate, on the molecular level, the highly synchronized differentiation pattern across multiple hPSC lines. Moreover, this study provides additional understanding for future efforts to improve the functionality of hPSC-derived hepatocytes and thereby increase the value of related models. © 2016 Nidal Ghosheh et al. Source

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