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Legge A.,Nova Scotia Health Authority | Doucette S.,Dalhousie University | Hanly J.G.,Nova Scotia Health Authority
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2016

Objective. To describe organ damage accrual, predictors of damage progression, and effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods.A longitudinal database of patients who met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for SLE was used. Annual assessments included the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR Damage Index (SDI) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). The prognostic significance of demographic, disease-related, and treatment-related factors on damage progression was examined using multivariable Cox regression. The effect of changes in SDI scores on HRQOL, measured using the SF-36 summary and subscale scores, was assessed using linear mixed-effects modeling. Results. There were 273 patients with SLE studied over a mean (SD) duration of followup of 7.3 (4.3) years. During followup, 126 (46.2%) had an increase in SDI scores. Patients with preexisting damage at baseline were more likely to have earlier damage progression (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.44-3.01). Older age, ≥ 8 ACR classification criteria, immunosuppressive drugs, cigarette smoking, and higher mean serum C-reactive protein levels were associated with an earlier increase in SDI scores in multivariable analysis. In general, changes in SDI scores were associated with initial declines in SF-36 scores at the time that damage occurred, with subsequent change comparable to that seen in patients without damage progression. Conclusion. This study identified multiple risk factors, some modifiable, associated with damage progression in patients with SLE. The negative effect on HRQOL emphasizes the need for treatment strategies to reduce the risk of organ damage over time. Copyright © 2016. All rights reserved. Source


MacKenzie L.E.,Nova Scotia Health Authority | MacKenzie L.E.,Health Center | Abidi S.,Health Center | Fisher H.L.,Kings College London | And 13 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, are among the most commonly used medications in children and adolescents. Psychotic symptoms have been reported as rare adverse reactions to stimulants but have not been systematically inquired about in most previous studies. Family history of mental illness may increase the vulnerability to druginduced psychotic symptoms. We examined the association between stimulant use and psychotic symptoms in sons and daughters of parents with major mood and psychotic disorders. Methods: We assessed psychotic symptoms, psychotic-like experiences, and basic symptoms in 141 children and youth (mean ± SD age: 11.8 ± 4.0 years; range: 6-21 years), who had 1 or both parents with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and of whom 24 (17.0%) had taken stimulant medication. Results: Psychotic symptoms were present in 62.5% of youth who had taken stimulants compared with 27.4% of participants who had never taken stimulants. The association between stimulant use and psychotic experiences remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratio: 4.41; 95% confidence interval: 1.82-10.69; P =.001) and was driven by hallucinations occurring during the use of stimulant medication. A temporal relationship between use of stimulants and psychotic symptoms was supported by an association between current stimulant use and current psychotic symptoms and co-occurrence in cases that were assessed on and off stimulants. Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms should be monitored during the use of stimulants in children and adolescents. Family history of mood and psychotic disorders may need to be taken into account when considering the prescription of stimulants. © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source


Abdolell M.,Dalhousie University | Tsuruda K.M.,Nova Scotia Health Authority | Lightfoot C.B.,Dalhousie University | Payne J.I.,Dalhousie University | And 2 more authors.
The British journal of radiology | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE: Various clinical risk factors, including high breast density, have been shown to be associated with breast cancer. The utility of using relative and absolute area-based breast density-related measures was evaluated as an alternative to clinical risk factors in cancer risk assessment at the time of screening mammography.METHODS: Contralateral mediolateral oblique digital mammography images from 392 females with unilateral breast cancer and 817 age-matched controls were analysed. Information on clinical risk factors was obtained from the provincial breast-imaging information system. Breast density-related measures were assessed using a fully automated breast density measurement software. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was used to evaluate the performance of three cancer risk models: the first using only clinical risk factors, the second using only density-related measures and the third using both clinical risk factors and density-related measures.RESULTS: The risk factor-based model generated an AUROC of 0.535, while the model including only breast density-related measures generated a significantly higher AUROC of 0.622 (p < 0.001). The third combined model generated an AUROC of 0.632 and performed significantly better than the risk factor model (p < 0.001) but not the density-related measures model (p = 0.097).CONCLUSION: Density-related measures from screening mammograms at the time of screen may be superior predictors of cancer compared with clinical risk factors.ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Breast cancer risk models based on density-related measures alone can outperform risk models based on clinical factors. Such models may support the development of personalized breast-screening protocols. Source


Abelson J.,McMaster University | Li K.,Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care | Wilson G.,Nova Scotia Health Authority | Shields K.,Outreach Services | And 2 more authors.
Health Expectations | Year: 2016

Objectives: Only rudimentary tools exist to support health system organizations to evaluate their public and patient engagement (PPE) activities. This study responds to this gap by developing a generic evaluation tool for use in a wide range of organizations. Methods: The evaluation tool was developed through an iterative, collaborative process informed by a review of published and grey literature and with the input of Canadian PPE researchers and practitioners. Over a 3-year period, structured e-mail, telephone and face-to-face exchanges, including a modified Delphi process, were used to produce an evaluation tool that includes core principles of high-quality engagement, expected outcomes for each principle and three unique evaluation questionnaires that were tested and revised with input from 65 end users. Results: The tool is structured around four core principles of ‘quality engagement’: (i) integrity of design and process; (ii) influence and impact; (iii) participatory culture; and (iv) collaboration and common purpose. Three unique questionnaires were developed to assess each of these four evaluation domains from the following perspectives: (i) those who participate in PPE activities; (ii) those who plan, execute or sponsor PPE activities within organizations; and (iii) those who provide the leadership and capacity for PPE within their organizations. Conclusions: This is the first known collaboration of researchers and practitioners in the co-design of a comprehensive PPE evaluation tool aimed at three distinct respondent groups and for use in a wide range of health system organization settings. © 2015 The Authors. Source


Pavlova B.,Nova Scotia Health Authority | Pavlova B.,Dalhousie University | Perlis R.H.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Alda M.,Nova Scotia Health Authority | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Background: Anxiety disorders are increasingly recognised as an important determinant of outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder. However, a reliable estimate of their prevalence is still missing, because the published prevalence of anxiety disorders in individuals with bipolar disorder varies widely. In this study, we aimed to quantify the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in individuals with bipolar disorder and compare it with rates in people without the disorder. Methods: We searched the Web of Knowledge and Medline (through the PubMed interface) for articles published in any language from the database inception dates up until June 1, 2014, using a combination of the word "bipolar" and search terms for anxiety disorders. We included studies that reported original data about the lifetime prevalence of DSM-III and DSM-IV anxiety disorders in adults with bipolar disorder that recruited participants irrespective of comorbidities and that used a validated diagnostic interview to establish the diagnoses of bipolar disorder and at least one anxiety disorder. We excluded studies that reported only the current prevalence or if we were unable to establish whether they described current or lifetime prevalence, and those with discrepancies in the data that could not be resolved by contacting the authors. We did a random-effects meta-analysis of lifetime prevalence of DSM-III and DSM-IV anxiety disorders in adults with bipolar disorder, in which we quantified the lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorder in people with bipolar disorder. We compared this prevalence in people with bipolar I disorder versus those with bipolar II disorder, and in people with bipolar disorder versus population controls. Findings: Data from 40 studies, including 14 914 individuals from North America, Europe, Australia, South America, and Asia, indicate that the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in individuals with bipolar disorder is 45% (95% CI 40-51). Direct comparison in five samples with a total of 1378 individuals with bipolar disorder and 56 812 population controls without bipolar disorder indicates a three-fold increase (risk ratio [RR] 3·22 [95% CI 2·41-4·29]; p<0·0001) in the prevalence of anxiety disorders in those with bipolar disorder. 13 studies that included both individuals with bipolar I disorder (n=4270) and those with bipolar II disorder (n=1939) showed no difference in the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders between these subtypes (RR 1·07 [95% CI 0·96-1·20]; p=0·223). We noted significant heterogeneity among included studies that was not accounted for by reported differences in study characteristics. Interpretation: People with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of anxiety disorders compared with those without bipolar disorder; nearly one in two has an anxiety disorder in their lifetime. Anxiety disorders should therefore be assessed alongside the mood symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Funding: Capital Health Research Fund. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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