PubMed | Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec, Public Health Agency of Canada, Public Health Ontario and 7 more.
Type: | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2017
Previously we studied the antibiotic susceptibility of invasive Haemophilus influenzae collected in Canada from 1990 to 2006 and characterized isolates by serotype, MLST and ftsI gene sequencing for significant PBP3 mutations.To provide an update based on isolates collected from 2007 to 2014.A total of 882 case isolates were characterized by serotype using slide agglutination and PCR. MLST was carried out to determine ST. Isolates were tested for -lactamase production, presence of significant PBP3 mutations and antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion against 14 antibiotics. MIC values of three antibiotics were determined for 316 isolates using microbroth dilution.Non-typeable H. influenzae accounted for 54.6% of the isolates and 45.4% were serotypeable, predominantly type a (23.1%), type b (8.3%) and type f (10.8%). The overall rate of ampicillin resistance due to -lactamase production was 16.4% and increased from 13.5% in 2007-10 to 19% in 2011-14. Significant PBP3 mutations were identified in 129 isolates (14.6%) with 23 (2.6%) also producing -lactamase. MLST identified related STs (ST-136, ST-14 and ST-367) associated exclusively with genetically -lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant isolates and confirmed previously reported associations between significant PBP3 mutations and ST.A significant increase in -lactamase-producing isolates was observed from 2007 to 2014; the rate of significant PBP3 mutations has increased since previously reported and 52.5% of non-typeable H. influenzae now show resistance markers. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was common and no resistance to fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins was found.
PubMed | Surgery and Research with the Central Zone, is a Drug Utilization Pharmacist and Pharmacy Research Coordinator with the Central Zone formerly Capital Health, systemIC and Nova Scotia Health Authority
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Canadian journal of hospital pharmacy | Year: 2016
Pharmacy technicians are expanding their scope of practice, often in partnership with pharmacists. In oncology, such a shift in responsibilities may lead to workflow efficiencies, but may also cause concerns about patient risk and medication errors.The primary objective was to compare the time spent on order entry and order-entry checking before and after training of a clinical support pharmacy technician (CSPT) to perform chemotherapy order entry. The secondary objectives were to document workflow interruptions and to assess medication errors.This before-and-after observational study investigated chemotherapy order entry for ambulatory oncology patients. Order entry was performed by pharmacists before the process change (phase 1) and by 1 CSPT after the change (phase 2); order-entry checking was performed by a pharmacist during both phases. The tasks were timed by an independent observer using a personal digital assistant. A convenience sample of 125 orders was targeted for each phase. Data were exported to Microsoft Excel software, and timing differences for each task were tested with an unpaired t test.Totals of 143 and 128 individual orders were timed for order entry during phase 1 (pharmacist) and phase 2 (CSPT), respectively. The mean total time to perform order entry was greater during phase 1 (1:37 min versus 1:20 min; p = 0.044). Totals of 144 and 122 individual orders were timed for order-entry checking (by a pharmacist) in phases 1 and 2, respectively, and there was no difference in mean total time for order-entry checking (1:21 min versus 1:20 min; p = 0.69). There were 33 interruptions not related to order entry (totalling 39:38 min) during phase 1 and 25 interruptions (totalling 30:08 min) during phase 2. Three errors were observed during order entry in phase 1 and one error during order-entry checking in phase 2; the errors were rated as having no effect on patient care.Chemotherapy order entry by a trained CSPT appeared to be just as safe and efficient as order entry by a pharmacist. Changes in pharmacy technicians scope of practice could increase the amount of time available for pharmacists to provide direct patient care in the oncology setting.
PubMed | University of Quebec at Montréal, University of Helsinki, Nova Scotia Health Authority, University of New South Wales and Harvard University
Type: | Journal: Psychological medicine | Year: 2016
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in people with bipolar disorder, but it is not clear how many have anxiety disorders even at times when they are free of major mood episodes. We aimed to establish what proportion of euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder meet diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders.We performed a random-effects meta-analysis of prevalence rates of current DSM-III- and DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified) in euthymic adults with bipolar disorder in studies published by 31 December 2015.Across 10 samples with 2120 individuals with bipolar disorder, 34.7% met diagnostic criteria for one or more anxiety disorders during euthymia [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.9-45.5%]. Direct comparison of 189 euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder and 17 109 population controls across three studies showed a 4.6-fold increase (risk ratio 4.60, 95% CI 2.37-8.92, p < 0.001) in prevalence of anxiety disorders in those with bipolar disorder.These findings suggest that anxiety disorders are common in people with bipolar disorder even when their mood is adequately controlled. Euthymic people with bipolar disorder should be routinely assessed for anxiety disorders and anxiety-focused treatment should be initiated if indicated.
Stevenson C.,Nova Scotia Health Authority |
Burstall D.,Nova Scotia Health Authority
Healthcare Management Forum | Year: 2016
The District Health Authority Consolidation (Transition and Design) project in Nova Scotia was initiated to consolidate the existing nine district health authorities into one provincial health authority. This article provides an overview of the internal change management approach and activities that were developed to support the various phases of the design and transition process. Three phases of work are outlined, and specific change management activities are described as are lessons learned from the overall approach. © 2016 The Canadian College of Health Leaders. All rights reserved.
O'Grady C.,Dalhousie University |
Omisade A.,Nova Scotia Health Authority |
Sadler R.M.,Dalhousie University
Neurocase | Year: 2016
This report describes the findings of language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a left-handed Urdu and English speaker with right hemisphere-originating epilepsy and unclear language dominance. fMRI is a reliable method for determining hemispheric language dominance in presurgical planning. However, the effects of bilingualism on language activation depend on many factors including age of acquisition and proficiency in the tested language, and morphological properties of the language itself. This case demonstrates that completing fMRI in both spoken languages and interpreting the results within the context of a neuropsychological assessment are essential in arriving at accurate conclusions about language distribution in bilingual patients. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Stanzel R.D.P.,Nova Scotia Health Authority |
Henderson M.,Nova Scotia Health Authority
Perfusion (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016
Advances in cardiopulmonary bypass equipment have played a critical role in improving outcomes for cardiac surgery patients. Recent advancements include reduced priming volumes, biocompatible coatings and gaseous microemboli handling, as well as the incorporation of an arterial filter into the oxygenator. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive clinical evaluation of adult oxygenators on the market. Oxygenators assessed included the Sorin Synthesis® (n = 30), the Sorin Inspire 6F® (n = 10) and Inspire 8F® (n = 30), the Terumo FX15® (n = 13) and FX25® (n = 30), the Maquet Quadrox-i® (n = 30) and the Medtronic Fusion® (n = 30). Parameters assessed included functional prime volumes, gas exchange, pressure gradients and the effects on patient hematology. The Synthesis had the largest functional prime volume (1426 ml), the FX15 the lowest (956 ml). The Inspire 6F, 8F and Fusion had the greatest O2 transfer. The Sorin oxygenators required the lowest sweep gas flows to obtain a PaCO2 of 40 mmHg. The Sorin oxygenators had the largest pressure gradients. While no differences were observed for hemoglobin and platelet levels post cross-clamp removal, the Sorin Synthesis and Inspire 8F had the largest increases in white blood cell (WBC) counts (122% and 141% of baseline, respectively) and neutrophils (162% and 185% of baseline, respectively). The data demonstrate that no single product is superior in all aspects. The choice of ideal oxygenator depends on the aspect(s) of oxygenator performance the perfusion team believes most clinically acceptable based on available data. © SAGE Publications.
Legge A.,Nova Scotia Health Authority |
Doucette S.,Dalhousie University |
Hanly J.G.,Nova Scotia Health Authority
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2016
Objective. To describe organ damage accrual, predictors of damage progression, and effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods.A longitudinal database of patients who met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for SLE was used. Annual assessments included the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR Damage Index (SDI) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). The prognostic significance of demographic, disease-related, and treatment-related factors on damage progression was examined using multivariable Cox regression. The effect of changes in SDI scores on HRQOL, measured using the SF-36 summary and subscale scores, was assessed using linear mixed-effects modeling. Results. There were 273 patients with SLE studied over a mean (SD) duration of followup of 7.3 (4.3) years. During followup, 126 (46.2%) had an increase in SDI scores. Patients with preexisting damage at baseline were more likely to have earlier damage progression (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.44-3.01). Older age, ≥ 8 ACR classification criteria, immunosuppressive drugs, cigarette smoking, and higher mean serum C-reactive protein levels were associated with an earlier increase in SDI scores in multivariable analysis. In general, changes in SDI scores were associated with initial declines in SF-36 scores at the time that damage occurred, with subsequent change comparable to that seen in patients without damage progression. Conclusion. This study identified multiple risk factors, some modifiable, associated with damage progression in patients with SLE. The negative effect on HRQOL emphasizes the need for treatment strategies to reduce the risk of organ damage over time. Copyright © 2016. All rights reserved.
Pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics for the intensive care unit: a narrative review [Utilisation de la pharmacogénomique et de la pharmacogénétique à l’unité de soins intensifs: un compte rendu narratif]
MacKenzie M.,Nova Scotia Health Authority |
MacKenzie M.,Dalhousie University |
Hall R.,Dalhousie University
Canadian Journal of Anesthesia | Year: 2016
Purpose: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. Source: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. Principal findings: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach. Genetic variability in response to drugs may occur as a result of alterations of drug-metabolizing (cytochrome P [CYP]) enzymes, receptors, and transport proteins leading to enhancement or delay in the therapeutic response. Of relevance to the ICU, genetic variation in CYP-450 isoenzymes results in altered effects of midazolam, fentanyl, morphine, codeine, phenytoin, clopidogrel, warfarin, carvedilol, metoprolol, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, calcineurin inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, proton pump inhibitors, and ondansetron. Changes in cholinesterase enzyme function may affect the disposition of succinylcholine, benzylisoquinoline muscle relaxants, remifentanil, and hydralazine. Genetic variation in transport proteins leads to differences in the response to opioids and clopidogrel. Polymorphisms in drug receptors result in altered effects of β-blockers, catecholamines, antipsychotic agents, and opioids. Genetic variation also contributes to the diversity and incidence of diseases and conditions such as sepsis, malignant hyperthermia, drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions, cardiac channelopathies, thromboembolic disease, and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: Application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics has seen improvements in drug therapy. Ongoing study and incorporation of these concepts into clinical decision making in the ICU has the potential to affect patient outcomes. © 2016 Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society
Pavlova B.,Nova Scotia Health Authority |
Pavlova B.,Dalhousie University |
Perlis R.H.,Massachusetts General Hospital |
Alda M.,Nova Scotia Health Authority |
And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Psychiatry | Year: 2015
Background: Anxiety disorders are increasingly recognised as an important determinant of outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder. However, a reliable estimate of their prevalence is still missing, because the published prevalence of anxiety disorders in individuals with bipolar disorder varies widely. In this study, we aimed to quantify the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in individuals with bipolar disorder and compare it with rates in people without the disorder. Methods: We searched the Web of Knowledge and Medline (through the PubMed interface) for articles published in any language from the database inception dates up until June 1, 2014, using a combination of the word "bipolar" and search terms for anxiety disorders. We included studies that reported original data about the lifetime prevalence of DSM-III and DSM-IV anxiety disorders in adults with bipolar disorder that recruited participants irrespective of comorbidities and that used a validated diagnostic interview to establish the diagnoses of bipolar disorder and at least one anxiety disorder. We excluded studies that reported only the current prevalence or if we were unable to establish whether they described current or lifetime prevalence, and those with discrepancies in the data that could not be resolved by contacting the authors. We did a random-effects meta-analysis of lifetime prevalence of DSM-III and DSM-IV anxiety disorders in adults with bipolar disorder, in which we quantified the lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorder in people with bipolar disorder. We compared this prevalence in people with bipolar I disorder versus those with bipolar II disorder, and in people with bipolar disorder versus population controls. Findings: Data from 40 studies, including 14 914 individuals from North America, Europe, Australia, South America, and Asia, indicate that the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in individuals with bipolar disorder is 45% (95% CI 40-51). Direct comparison in five samples with a total of 1378 individuals with bipolar disorder and 56 812 population controls without bipolar disorder indicates a three-fold increase (risk ratio [RR] 3·22 [95% CI 2·41-4·29]; p<0·0001) in the prevalence of anxiety disorders in those with bipolar disorder. 13 studies that included both individuals with bipolar I disorder (n=4270) and those with bipolar II disorder (n=1939) showed no difference in the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders between these subtypes (RR 1·07 [95% CI 0·96-1·20]; p=0·223). We noted significant heterogeneity among included studies that was not accounted for by reported differences in study characteristics. Interpretation: People with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of anxiety disorders compared with those without bipolar disorder; nearly one in two has an anxiety disorder in their lifetime. Anxiety disorders should therefore be assessed alongside the mood symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Funding: Capital Health Research Fund. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Nova Scotia Health Authority, Dalhousie University and Cape Breton University
Type: | Journal: Journal of clinical nursing | Year: 2017
Participant narratives from a feminist and queer phenomenological study aim to broaden current understandings of trauma. Examining structural marginalization within perinatal care relationships provides insights into the impact of dominant models of care on queer birthing women. More specifically, validation of queer experience as a key finding from the study offers trauma-informed strategies that reconstruct formerly disempowering perinatal relationships.Heteronormativity governs birthing spaces and presents considerable challenges for queer birthing women who may also have an increased risk of trauma due to structurally marginalizing processes that create and maintain socially constructed differences.Analysis of the qualitative data was guided by feminist and queer phenomenology. This was well suited to understanding queer womens storied narratives of trauma, including disempowering processes of structural marginalization.Semi-structured and conversational interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of thirteen queer identified women who had experiences of birthing in rural Nova Scotia, Canada.Validation was identified as meaningful for queer women in the context of perinatal care in rural Nova Scotia. Offering new perspectives on traditional models of assessment provide strategies to create a context of care that reconstructs the birthing space insofar as women at risk do not have to come out as queer in opposition to the expectation of heterosexuality.Normative practices were found to further the effects of structural marginalization suggesting that perinatal care providers, including nurses, can challenge dominant models of care and reconstruct the relationality between queer women and formerly disempowering expectations of heteronormativity that govern birthing spaces. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.