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Halifax, Canada

Bowes D.,Nova Scotia Cancer Center | Gaztanaga M.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Araujo C.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Kim D.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | And 7 more authors.

Purpose: To compare 30-day seed displacement and seed loss of standard loose seeds to specially engineered coated seeds. Methods and Materials: Forty patients with prostate cancer were randomized and treated with either loose seeds or loose "coated" seeds. Implants were preplanned using transrectal ultrasound and performed using preloaded needles containing either standard or coated iodine-125 seeds according to randomization. Pelvic X-rays and CT were performed on Days 0 and 30 and a pelvic magnetic resonance scan on Day 30. Cranial-caudal displacement relative to the center of mass (COM) of the seed cloud of the six most peripheral basal and apical seeds was determined from Day 0 and 30 CT scans using custom software. Day 30 magnetic resonance-CT fusion was performed using a seed-to-seed match for soft tissue contouring on MRI. Results: The mean displacement for the six basal seeds was 0.32 cm (standard deviation [SD], 0.25 cm) and 0.33 cm (SD, 0.27 cm) toward the COM for the regular and coated seeds, respectively (p= 0.35). For the apical seeds, mean displacement was 0.31 cm (SD, 0.35 cm) and 0.43 cm (SD, 0.26 cm) (p= 0.003) toward the COM. More regular seeds (n= 8) were lost from the apical region as compared with one coated seed (p= 0.015). There was a trend to reduction in total seeds lost: 1% for regular seeds as compared with 0.3% for coated seeds. Conclusions: Coated seeds were found to have a significant anchoring effect that was effective in reducing the number of apical seeds lost because of venous migration. © 2013 American Brachytherapy Society. Source

Lee MacDonald R.,Dalhousie University | Thomas C.G.,Nova Scotia Cancer Center | Thomas C.G.,Dalhousie University
Medical Physics

Purpose: To investigate potential improvement in external beam stereotactic radiation therapy plan quality for cranial cases using an optimized dynamic gantry and patient support couch motion trajectory, which could minimize exposure to sensitive healthy tissue. Methods: Anonymized patient anatomy and treatment plans of cranial cancer patients were used to quantify the geometric overlap between planning target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) based on their two-dimensional projection from source to a plane at isocenter as a function of gantry and couch angle. Published dose constraints were then used as weighting factors for the OARs to generate a map of couch-gantry coordinate space, indicating degree of overlap at each point in space. A couch-gantry collision space was generated by direct measurement on a linear accelerator and couch using an anthropomorphic solid-water phantom. A dynamic, fully customizable algorithm was written to generate a navigable ideal trajectory for the patient specific couch-gantry space. The advanced algorithm can be used to balance the implementation of absolute minimum values of overlap with the clinical practicality of large-scale couch motion and delivery time. Optimized cranial cancer treatment trajectories were compared to conventional treatment trajectories. Results: Comparison of optimized treatment trajectories with conventional treatment trajectories indicated an average decrease in mean dose to the OARs of 19% and an average decrease in maximum dose to the OARs of 12%. Degradation was seen for homogeneity index (6.14% ± 0.67%-5.48% ± 0.76%) and conformation number (0.82 ± 0.02-0.79 ± 0.02), but neither was statistically significant. Removal of OAR constraints from volumetric modulated arc therapy optimization reveals that reduction in dose to OARs is almost exclusively due to the optimized trajectory and not the OAR constraints. Conclusions: The authors' study indicated that simultaneous couch and gantry motion during radiation therapy to minimize the geometrical overlap in the beams-eye-view of target volumes and the organs-at-risk can have an appreciable dose reduction to organs-at-risk. © 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source

Chytyk-Praznik K.,Cancercare Manitoba | Chytyk-Praznik K.,University of Manitoba | Chytyk-Praznik K.,Nova Scotia Cancer Center | Vanuytven E.,Cancercare Manitoba | And 5 more authors.
Medical Physics

Purpose: Dosimetric verification of radiation therapy is crucial when delivering complex treatments like intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT. Pretreatment verification, characterized by methods applied without the patient present and before the treatment start date, is typically carried out at most centers. In vivo dosimetric verification, characterized by methods applied with the patient present, is not commonly carried out in the clinic. This work presents a novel, model-based EPID dosimetry method that could be used for routine clinical in vivo patient treatment verification. Methods: The authors integrated a detailed fluence model with a patient scatter prediction model that uses a superposition of scatter energy fluence kernels, generated via Monte Carlo techniques, to determine patient scatter fluence delivered to the EPID. The total dose to the EPID was calculated using the sum of convolutions of the calculated energy fluence distribution entering the EPID with monoenergetic dose kernels, specific to the a-Si EPID. Measured images with simple, square fields delivered to slab phantoms were validated against predicted images. Measured and predicted images acquired during the delivery of IMRT fields to slabs and an anthropomorphic phantom were compared using the χ-comparison for 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria. Results: Predicted and measured images of the square fields with slabs in the field agreed within 2.5%. Predicted portal dose images of clinical IMRT fields delivered to slabs and an anthropomorphic phantom agreed with measured images within 3% and 3 mm for an average of at least 97% of the infield pixels (defined as >10% maximum field dose) for each case, over all fields. Conclusions: This work presents the first validation of the integration of a comprehensive fluence model with a patient and EPID radiation transport model that accounts for patient transmission, including complex factors such as patient scatter and the energy response of the a-Si detector. The portal dose image prediction model satisfies the 3% and 3 mm criteria for IMRT fields delivered to slab phantoms and could be used for patient treatment verification. © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source

Hodgson D.C.,University of Toronto | Charpentier A.-M.,University of Toronto | Cigsar C.,A+ Network | Atenafu E.G.,A+ Network | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics

Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases is a relatively well-studied technology with established guidelines regarding patient selection, although its implementation is technically complex. We evaluated the extent to which local availability of SRS affected the treatment of patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We identified 3030 patients who received whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for brain metastases in 1 of 7 cancer centers in Ontario. Clinical data were abstracted for a random sample of 973 patients. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the use of SRS as a boost within 4 months following WBRT or at any time following WBRT. Results: Of 898 patients eligible for analysis, SRS was provided to 70 (7.8%) patients at some time during the course of their disease and to 34 (3.8%) patients as a boost following WBRT. In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with the use of SRS boost following WBRT were fewer brain metastases (odds ratio [OR] = 6.50), controlled extracranial disease (OR = 3.49), age (OR = 0.97 per year of advancing age), and the presence of an on-site SRS program at the hospital where WBRT was given (OR = 12.34; all P values were <.05). Similarly, availability of on-site SRS was the factor most predictive of the use of SRS at any time following WBRT (OR = 5.98). Among patients with 1-3 brain metastases, good/fair performance status, and no evidence of active extracranial disease, SRS was provided to 40.3% of patients who received WBRT in a hospital that had an on-site SRS program vs 3.0% of patients who received WBRT at a hospital without SRS (P<.01). Conclusions: The availability of on-site SRS is the factor most strongly associated with the provision of this treatment to patients with brain metastases and appears to be more influential than accepted clinical eligibility factors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Whelan T.J.,McMaster University | Olivotto I.A.,Tom Baker Cancer Center | Olivotto I.A.,Cancer Agency Vancouver Island Center | Parulekar W.R.,Queens University | And 20 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

Background Most women with breast cancer who undergo breast-conserving surgery receive wholebreast irradiation. We examined whether the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation improved outcomes. Methods We randomly assigned women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant systemic therapy to undergo either whole-breast irradiation plus regional nodal irradiation (including internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes) (nodalirradiation group) or whole-breast irradiation alone (control group). The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were disease-free survival, isolated locoregional disease-free survival, and distant disease-free survival. Results Between March 2000 and February 2007, a total of 1832 women were assigned to the nodal-irradiation group or the control group (916 women in each group). The median follow-up was 9.5 years. At the 10-year follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in survival, with a rate of 82.8% in the nodal-irradiation group and 81.8% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.13; P = 0.38). The rates of disease-free survival were 82.0% in the nodal-irradiation group and 77.0% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.94; P = 0.01). Patients in the nodal-irradiation group had higher rates of grade 2 or greater acute pneumonitis (1.2% vs. 0.2%, P = 0.01) and lymphedema (8.4% vs. 4.5%, P = 0.001). Conclusions Among women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer, the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation did not improve overall survival but reduced the rate of breast-cancer recurrence. © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

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