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Strandbu A.,NOVA Norwegian Social Research | Steen-Johnsen K.,ISF Institute for Social Research
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2014

This paper explores the role of reflexivity in habituation by contrasting the learning of aerobics and basketball with the acquisition of gendered bodily skills. The discussion is inspired by the paper So, how did Bourdieu learn to play tennis? Habitus, consciousness and habituation, by Noble and Watkins (2003), which represents a fruitful contribution to the debate on the roles of reflexivity and consciousness in learning. Still, this model of habituation remains one-dimensional, since it only addresses habituation involving reflexivity. Based on fieldwork at both a basketball club and an aerobic group for Muslim women, along with interviews with participants in the two arenas, we suggest that even though habituation often involves reflexivity, there are also forms of habituation that do not involve high degrees of consciousness. The paper adds to the on-going theoretical debate about the hybridisation of habitus and reflexivity by offering concrete and empirically based examples of different degrees of reflexivity involved in processes of habituation. This adds to a theoretical underpinning of habitus as a lived, changing category. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Magnusson Turner L.,NOVA Norwegian Social Research | Hedman L.,Uppsala University
Housing Studies | Year: 2014

This study investigates the extent to which immigrant groups are integrated in the Stockholm region through an analysis of their housing careers. Housing conditions are linked to many important life course events, as well as to the resources and preferences of each individual family. Housing conditions influence integration, but factors related to integration can also be a cause of housing conditions. In the study, we take a truly longitudinal approach to housing careers by exploring differences in the timing of career-related events between several immigrant groups and native Swedes. The objective of the study is to explore whether the housing careers of immigrant groups follow family and work careers in a similar way as the native population. The data are derived from a longitudinal individual-level register-based data-set maintained by Statistics Sweden. The analysis is carried out by way of survival analysis. Our results confirm that there are substantial ethnic differences in housing careers that cannot be attributed to family composition or career. Our results also highlight three important factors that reduce the differences between native Swedes and immigrants groups in the tendency to enter homeownership: university degree, type of municipality and duration of stay in Sweden. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Elstad J.I.,NOVA Norwegian Social Research | Pedersen A.W.,Institute for Social Research
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2012

Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510) and their parents, combined with register data on the family's economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents' subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed. © 2012 by the authors.

Kjellgren C.,Lund University | Priebe G.,Lund University | Svedin C.G.,Linkoping University | Mossige S.,NOVA Norwegian Social Research | Langstrom N.,Karolinska Institutet
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2011

Introduction. Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Aim. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main Outcome Measures. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. Methods. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean=18.1 years). Results. Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Conclusions. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and should have substantial etiological importance. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

Vabo M.,NOVA Norwegian Social Research
Health and Social Care in the Community | Year: 2012

In Norway, home-based care forms part of the universal welfare model in that services are offered to and used by all groups of citizens. An infrastructure of in-home services has evolved within a multi-level government characterised by a combination of local autonomy and strong integration between central and local levels. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, home care was typically organised in teams characterised by collegiality and flexible organisation. Over the past two decades, this framework has been challenged by new modes of governance introduced under the banner of transparency and accountability. This paper focuses on how this new trend in governance has been justified and put into practice. Against the backdrop of the institutional history of home care, the paper demonstrates how accountability arrangements became entangled with ongoing effort of local authorities to control costs. Drawing on existing case studies conducted at different points in time, the paper reveals how these arrangements have reshaped home care organisations in a way that also contributes to splitting up and curtailing responsibilities. It is argued that steps taken to make home care services more transparent and reliable have made them less sensitive to the particular needs of individual service recipients. Although no firm conclusion can be drawn from a limited number of case studies, the paper concludes by arguing that accountability arrangements in home care have enhanced the predictability and reliability of service delivery. However, as off-loading responsibilities may be disempowering for those who do not have additional coping resources, institutional changes may also serve to undermine the enabling role of home care services. These findings suggest a need to address the dilemma inherent in the rationing of home care services and to rethink how a contextual and situated approach to care can be better balanced against the requirement of due process. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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