Nova Institute GmbH

Germany

Nova Institute GmbH

Germany
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Grotenhermen F.,Nova Institute GmbH | Muller-Vahl K.,Klinik fur Psychiatrie
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2017

In the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of cannabis and single cannabinoids, mainly cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC and cannabis products rich in THC exert their effects mainly through the activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Since 1975, 140 controlled clinical trials using different cannabinoids or whole-plant preparations for the treatment of a large number of disorders and symptoms have been conducted. Results have led to the approval of cannabis-based medicines [dronabinol, nabilone, and the cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®, THC:CBD = 1:1)] as well as cannabis flowers in several countries. Controlled clinical studies provide substantial evidence for the use of cannabinoid receptor agonists in cancer chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, appetite loss and cachexia in cancer and HIV patients, neuropathic and chronic pain, and in spasticity in multiple sclerosis. In addition, there is also some evidence suggesting a therapeutic potential of cannabis-based medicines in other indications including Tourette syndrome, spinal cord injury, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and glaucoma. In several other indications, small uncontrolled and single-case studies reporting beneficial effects are available, for example in posttraumatic stress disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and migraine. The most common side effects of THC and cannabis-based medicines rich in THC are sedation and dizziness (in more than 10% of patients), psychological effects, and dry mouth. Tolerance to these side effects nearly always develops within a short time. Withdrawal symptoms are hardly ever a problem in the therapeutic setting. In recent years there is an increasing interest in the medical use of CBD, which exerts no intoxicating side effects and is usually well-tolerated. Preliminary data suggest promising effects in the treatment of anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, dystonia, and some forms of epilepsy. This review gives an overview on clinical studies which have been published over the past 40 years. © 2017 Taylor & Francis


Ronzon T.,European Commission | Piotrowski S.,Nova Institute GmbH
Industrial Biotechnology | Year: 2017

The Bioeconomy Strategy of the European Commission, launched in 2012, aims to develop the production and use of biomass within the European Union as a strategy to limit the consumption of fossil carbon while fostering jobs and growth. The quantification and timely reporting of biomass flows are crucial for the monitoring of such a strategy. Within this framework, the present work focuses on the quantification of primary agricultural residues in the European Union, which could be a potential feedstock for the biobased material and bioenergy sectors. Harvest indices, or residue-to-product ratios (RPRs), determined at crop level, are used in the calculation of primary agricultural residues. Building on RPR functions of yield, we acknowledge a relationship between primary crop residue quantity and crop yield. Finally, we estimate that 395 million tonnes of dry matter (Tdm) of primary agricultural residues was produced in Europe in 2013 from more than 130 crop commodities, of which 297 million Tdm should be left in the fields for the maintenance of ecosystem services (using conservative assumptions) and 29 million Tdm is collected for agricultural use. Consequently, 69 million Tdm is collectable as feedstock for the biobased material and bioenergy sectors. Collectible residues are mainly composed of cellulose (42%) and sugar and starch (10%). The production of primary agricultural residues is concentrated in the major cereal-producing countries and is stable over time. Nevertheless, a wider adoption of ad hoc harvesting machinery, the optimization of logistic processes, and the maturation of the new biobased value chains could help to take advantage of the current production of agricultural residues. © Copyright 2017, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2017.


Ronzon T.,European Commission | Piotrowski S.,Nova Institute GmbH | M'Barek R.,European Commission | Carus M.,Nova Institute GmbH
Bio-based and Applied Economics | Year: 2017

In 2014, approximately 18.6 million people in the European Union (EU) were employed in the bioeconomy, generating annual turnover of around EUR 2.2 trillion. And over the period 2008-2014, almost all sectors of the bioeconomy in the EU experienced labour productivity gains (in terms of turnover per person employed). Agriculture and the manufacture of food, beverages and tobacco accounted for three quarters of the jobs and two thirds of the turnover of the European bioeconomy, while, among different sectors, the highest levels of labour productivity were achieved in the manufacture of bio-based chemicals, pharmaceuticals, plastics and rubber, as well as the production of bioelectricity. This EU bioeconomy overview has been compiled after estimating (using Comext codes) the bio-based content of hundreds of products produced and manufactured in the bioeconomy sectors. Using official statistics, such quan-tification is easy to replicate and update. It also allows us to highlight similarities and diversities in national bioeconomy patterns within the EU, and to discuss how analysis can support the development of bioeconomy strategies in EU Member States. © Firenze University Press.


Partanen A.,nova Institute GmbH
Reinforced Plastics | Year: 2017

Composite materials are, as the name suggests, a combination of at least two materials. Materials such as plastics, ceramics or metals are reinforced with different fiber or woven materials. Fiber reinforced plastic composites belong to the group of fiber reinforced composites, and both of these belong to the higher category of composite materials. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


« UMTRI: average new vehicle fuel economy in US in August down from July | Main | Fujitsu develops low power consumption technology for 5G » BIOFOREVER (BIO-based products from FORestry via Economically Viable European Routes)—a consortium of 14 European companies—has started a demonstration project for the conversion of woody biomass to value-adding chemical building blocks such as butanol, ethanol, and 2,5–furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) on an industrial scale. The demonstration project will run for 3 years. The overall budget is €16.2 million (US$18 million) with a €9.9-million (US$11-million) contribution from BBI JU. Woody biomass, including waste wood, will be converted to lignin, (nano-) cellulose and (hemi-) cellulosic sugars, and further converted to lignin derivatives and chemicals. Feedstocks will be benchmarked with crop residues and energy crops. A number of pre-treatment and subsequent conversion technologies will be demonstrated, including delivering commercialization routes for the most promising value chains. Typically, such bio-refineries will be projected in logistic hubs such as the Port of Rotterdam and other European ports. In December 2015 the consortium applied for European funding under the Horizon 2020 program and in April 2016 the proposal was positively evaluated by Bio Based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU), a public/private partnership between the European Union and the Bio-based Industries Consortium. BIOFOREVER consortium partners include: API Europe, Greece; Avantium Chemicals BV, Netherlands; Bioprocess Pilot Facility BV, Netherlands; Borregaard AS, Norway; Bio Refinery Development BV, Netherlands; DSM, Netherlands; Elkem Carbon AS, Norway; Green Biologics Ltd, UK; MetGen Oy, Finland; Nova Institute, Germany; Novasep Process SAS, France; Phytowelt, Green Technologies GmbH, Germany; Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands; and SUEZ Groupe, France.


Lehmann C.,RWTH Aachen | Sibilla F.,RWTH Aachen | Sibilla F.,Nova Institute GmbH | Maugeri Z.,RWTH Aachen | And 4 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2012

Cellulases are promising catalysts for the depolymerization of cellulose under mild conditions. Reengineered cellulases are required to match application demands in biorefineries and to avoid cost-intensive downstream processing. This manuscript provides a novel fluorescence-based high throughput screening method for directed evolution of cellulases, based on 4-methylumbelliferyl- β-d-cellobioside (4-MUC). The 4-MUC high throughput screening system was successfully employed to identify CelA2 variants with enhanced stability and activity in mixtures of water with deep eutectic solvents like choline chloride:glycerol (ChCl:Gly), and seawater. The cellulase variant 4D1 (L21P; L184Q; H288R; K299I; D330G; N442D) was isolated and showed, compared to wild type, an increase in specific activity in 30% (v/v) ChCl:Gly (7.5-fold; 0.4 to 3.0 U mg-1) and in concentrated seawater (1.6-fold; 5.5 to 9.3 U mg-1). In addition, the residual activity of 4D1 in the presence of 3-fold concentrated seawater is unaffected whereas CelA2 wild type loses >50% of its activity. Furthermore, the position H288 was identified as a key position for activity and resistance in 4D1. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Grotenhermen F.,Nova Institute GmbH | Muller-Vahl K.,Klinik fur Psychiatrie
Suchttherapie | Year: 2016

Background: The interest in the therapeutic use of cannabis and its constituents has considerably increased in recent years Methods: Selective literature search with the keywords cannabi∗ or marijuana or THC or endocannabinoid. Results: The results of controlled clinical studies were the basis for the approval of cannabis-based medicines in several European countries, but also Canada, the US and others. They are mainly prescribed, often off-label, for appetite loss, nausea, spasticity in multiple sclerosis and for other neurological diseases, neuropathic pain and psychiatric conditions. Patients may also apply for an exemption from the narcotics law to the Bundesopiumstelle of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices to use medicinal cannabis flowers from the pharmacy in the frame of a medically supervised self-medication. Conclusions: Cannabis-based drugs possess a broad therapeutic potential in a number of severe medical conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart·New York.


Grotenhermen F.,Nova Institute GmbH | Muller-Vahl K.,Hannover Medical School
Deutsches Arzteblatt International | Year: 2012

Background: Cannabis-based medications have been a topic of intense study since the endogenous cannabinoid system was discovered two decades ago. In 2011, for the first time, a cannabis extract was approved for clinical use in Germany. Methods: Selective literature review Results: Cannabis-based medications exert their effects mainly through the activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). More than 100 controlled clinical trials of cannabinoids or whole-plant preparations for various indications have been conducted since 1975. The findings of these trials have led to the approval of cannabis-based medicines (dronabinol, nabilone, and a cannabis extract [THC:CBD=1:1]) in several countries. In Germany, a cannabis extract was approved in 2011 for the treatment of moderate to severe refractory spasticity in multiple sclerosis. It is commonly used off label for the treatment of anorexia, nausea, and neuropathic pain. Patients can also apply for government permission to buy medicinal cannabis flowers for self-treatment under medical supervision. The most common side effects of cannabinoids are tiredness and dizziness (in more than 10% of patients), psychological effects, and dry mouth. Tolerance to these side effects nearly always develops within a short time. Withdrawal symptoms are hardly ever a problem in the therapeutic setting. Conclusion: There is now clear evidence that cannabinoids are useful for the treatment of various medical conditions.


Van Boxtel A.J.B.,Wageningen University | Perez-Lopez P.,Wageningen University | Perez-Lopez P.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Breitmayer E.,Nova Institute GmbH | Slegers P.M.,Wageningen University
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

Environmental impact is an essential aspect for the introduction of algae production systems. As information of large scale algae production is hardly available, process simulation is the only way to evaluate environmental sustainability in an early phase of process design. Simulation results allow the evaluation of production and design scenarios, and reveal the potential to improve the Life Cycle Performance of algae production systems. In this work, we discuss how choices in the process design of algae production systems (cultivation, biorefinery and the supply chain) advance LCA-results. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Van Boxtel A.J.B.,Wageningen University | Perez-Lopez P.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Breitmayer E.,Nova Institute GmbH | Slegers P.M.,Wageningen University
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

Environmental impact is an essential aspect for the introduction of algae production systems. As information of large scale algae production is hardly available, process simulation is the only way to evaluate environmental sustainability in an early phase of process design. Simulation results allow the evaluation of production and design scenarios, and reveal the potential to improve the Life Cycle Performance of algae production systems. In this work, we discuss how choices in the process design of algae production systems (cultivation, biorefinery and the supply chain) advance LCA-results. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Loading Nova Institute GmbH collaborators
Loading Nova Institute GmbH collaborators