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Adams J.,Queen's University | Bornstein J.M.,Queen's University | Munno K.,Queen's University | Hollebone B.,Environment Canada | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2014

The present study isolated and identified compounds in heavy fuel oil 7102 (HFO 7102) that are bioavailable and chronically toxic to rainbow trout embryos (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An effects-driven chemical fractionation combined the chemical separation of oil with toxicity testing and chemical analyses of each fraction to identify the major classes of compounds associated with embryo toxicity. Toxicity was assessed with 2 exposure methods, a high-energy chemical dispersion of oil in water, which included oil droplets in test solutions, and water accommodated fractions which were produced by oiled gravel desorption columns, and which did not contain visible oil droplets. Fractions of HFO with high concentrations of naphthalenes, alkanes, asphaltenes, and resins were nontoxic to embryos over the range of concentrations tested. In contrast, fractions enriched with 3- to 4-ringed alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were embryotoxic, consistent with published studies of crude oils and individual alkyl PAHs. The rank order of fraction toxicity did not vary between the exposure methods and was consistent with their PAH content; fractions with higher-molecular weight alkyl PAHs were the most toxic. Exposure of juvenile trout to most fractions of HFO induced higher activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes, with a rank order of potency that varied with exposure method and differed somewhat from that of embryotoxicity. Induction reflected the bioavailability of PAHs but did not accurately predict embryotoxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:825-835. © 2013 SETAC.


Knupp D.C.,Nova Energy | Naveira-Cotta C.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Cotta R.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2014

The present work deals with conjugated heat transfer in heat spreaders made of a nanocomposite substrate with longitudinally molded multiple straight micro-channels. An experimental analysis is undertaken to validate a recently proposed methodology for the solution of conjugated conduction-convection heat transfer problems, which are often of relevance in thermal micro-systems analysis, based on a single domain formulation and solution of the resulting problem through integral transforms. The single domain formulation simultaneously models the heat transfer phenomena at both the fluid streams and the channels walls by making use of coefficients represented as space variable functions with abrupt transitions occurring at the fluid-wall interfaces. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) is then employed in the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of the resulting convection-diffusion problem with variable coefficients. The experimental investigation involves the determination of the surface temperature distribution over the heat spreader with the molded microchannels that exchange heat with the base plate by flowing hot water at a prescribed mass flow rate. The infrared thermography technique is employed to investigate the response of the heat spreader surface temperature to a hot inlet fluid flow, aiming at the analysis of micro-systems that provide a thermal response from either their normal operation or due to a promoted stimulus for characterization purposes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Duncan Keppie J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Fraser Keppie D.,Nova Energy
Geoscience Canada | Year: 2014

Current Ediacaran–Cambrian, paleo-geographic reconstructions place Aval-onia, Carolinia and Ganderia (Greater Avalonia) at high paleolatitudes off northwestern Gondwana (NW Africa and/or Amazonia), and locate NW Gondwana at either high or low paleo-latitudes. All of these reconstructions are incompatible with 550 Ma Avalon-ian paleomagnetic data, which indicate a paleolatitude of 20–30ºS for Greater Avalonia and oriented with the present-day southeast margin on the northwest side. Ediacaran, Cambrian and Early Ordovician fauna in Avalonia are mainly endemic, which suggests that Greater Avalonia was an island micro-continent. Except for the degree of Ediacaran deformation, the Neopro-terozoic geological records of mildly deformed Greater Avalonia and the intensely deformed Bolshezemel block in the Timanian orogen into eastern Baltica raise the possibility that they were originally along strike from one another, passing from an island micro-continent to an arc-continent collision-al zone, respectively. Such a location and orientation is consistent with: (i) Ediacaran (580–550 Ma) ridge-trench collision leading to transform motion along the backarc basin; (ii) the reversed, ocean-to-continent polarity of the Ediacaran cratonic island arc recorded in Greater Avalonia; (iii) derivation of 1–2 Ga and 760–590 Ma detrital zircon grains in Greater Avalo-nia from Baltica and the Bolshezemel block (NE Timanides); and (iv) the similarity of 840–1760 Ma TDM model ages from detrital zircon in pre-Uralian–Timanian and Nd model ages from Greater Avalonia. During the Cambrian, Greater Avalonia rotated 150º counterclockwise ending up off northwestern Gondwana by the beginning of the Ordovician, after which it migrated orthogonally across Iapetus to amalgamate with eastern Laurentia by the Late Ordovician–Early Silurian. © 2014 GAC/AGC®


News Article | November 3, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE--(Marketwired - Nov. 3, 2016) - Terra Nova Energy Ltd. ("Terra Nova" or the "Company") (TSX VENTURE:TGC)(OTCQX:TNVMF)(FRANKFURT:GLTN) announces that it intends to consolidate its issued and outstanding common shares on the basis of one post-consolidation common share for four pre-consolidation common shares (the "Consolidation"), to change its name to "Claren Energy Corp." (the "Name Change") and to change its trading symbol to "CLE". The purpose of the Consolidation and the Name Change is to facilitate the Company's ability to attract future transactions, generate greater investor interest and improve trading liquidity. The Company currently has 87,533,785 common shares issued and 127,533,785 common shares outstanding assuming completion of the transaction with Perseville Investing Inc. ("Perseville") as set out in the news release dated October 31, 2016. Upon completion of the Consolidation, the Company anticipates there will be 21,883,446 common shares issued and 31,883,446 common shares outstanding assuming completion of the transaction with Perseville. Henry Aldorf, CEO of the Company, stated: "I very much appreciate the overwhelming support from our shareholders which we received at last week's Annual General and Special Meeting. With a new name, a consolidated share structure together with the strong backing from insiders and key shareholders we are well positioned to take advantage of low risk opportunities that present themselves in many OECD countries with existing infrastructure and a ready market. Exciting times are ahead for Claren Energy Corp. with the drilling of a side track well in an existing gas field in Bobocu, Romania." In accordance with the Company's Articles, the Consolidation and Name Change do not require the approval of the shareholders. The Consolidation, Name Change and change in trading symbol are subject to acceptance from the TSX-V. Terra Nova Energy Ltd. is an oil and gas company with a 20.66% working interest in two onshore petroleum exploration licenses ("PELs"), being PEL 112 and PEL 444, located on the western flank of the Cooper Eromanga Basin in the State of South Australia, Australia. Its common shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol "TGC" and its ordinary shares trade in the U.S. on the OTCQX marketplace under the symbol "TNVMF." This news release contains forward-looking information relating to Terra Nova's intentions to conduct the drilling programs and other statements that are not historical facts. Such forward-looking information is subject to important risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from what is currently expected, for example: risks related to oil and gas exploration, development, exploitation, production, marketing and transportation, loss of markets, volatility of commodity prices, currency fluctuations, competition from other producers, inability to retain drilling rigs and other services, reliance on key personnel, and insurance risks. Findings by other oil and gas issuers does not necessarily indicate that Terra Nova will be successful in making such findings in the Western Flank. In making such forward- looking statements, Terra Nova has relied upon certain assumptions relating to geological settings, commodity prices, the stability of markets and currencies and the availability of capital to Terra Nova in order to continue with the seismic and drilling programs. You should not place undue importance on forward-looking information and should not rely upon this information as of any other date. While Terra Nova may elect to, Terra Nova is under no obligation and does not undertake to update this information at any particular time, except as required by applicable securities law. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE--(Marketwired - Nov. 10, 2016) - Terra Nova Energy Ltd. ("Terra Nova" or the "Company") (TSX VENTURE:TGC)(OTCQX:TNVMF) is pleased to announce that it closed its acquisition of a 30.833% Working Interest ("Interest") in Petroleum Exploration License ("PEL" or "Licenses") 112 and 444, and a 1.47% gross overriding royalty interest on the PELs (the "Royalty"). In consideration of the Interest and Royalty, Terra Nova issued to Perseville Investing Inc. 40,000,000 pre-consolidation common shares of Terra Nova at a deemed price of $0.05 per share in accordance with the terms of an agreement among Terra Nova and Perseville. Perseville is controlled by Carlo Civelli. Mr. Civelli is the father of Nico Civelli, who is a member of Terra Nova's board of directors. After closing of the transaction, Mr. Civelli now owns, directly and indirectly, 44,545,455 pre-consolidation common shares of Terra Nova, representing 34.93% of the issued and outstanding common shares of Terra Nova. As disclosed in Terra Nova's news release dated October 31, 2016, shareholders of Terra Nova approved Mr. Civelli becoming a new control person of Terra Nova. The securities issued to Perseville will be subject to a four month hold period in accordance with applicable securities laws. Terra Nova Energy Ltd. is an oil and gas company with a 51.49% working interest in two onshore petroleum exploration licenses ("PELs"), being PEL 112 and PEL 444, including a 1.47% gross overriding royalty interest on the PELs, located on the western flank of the Cooper Eromanga Basin in the State of South Australia, Australia. Its common shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol "TGC" and its ordinary shares trade in the U.S. on the OTCQX marketplace under the symbol "TNVMF." This news release contains forward-looking information relating to Terra Nova's intentions to conduct the drilling programs and other statements that are not historical facts. Such forward-looking information is subject to important risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from what is currently expected, for example: risks related to oil and gas exploration, development, exploitation, production, marketing and transportation, loss of markets, volatility of commodity prices, currency fluctuations, competition from other producers, inability to retain drilling rigs and other services, reliance on key personnel, and insurance risks. Findings by other oil and gas issuers does not necessarily indicate that Terra Nova will be successful in making such findings in the Western Flank. In making such forward- looking statements, Terra Nova has relied upon certain assumptions relating to geological settings, commodity prices, the stability of markets and currencies and the availability of capital to Terra Nova in order to continue with the seismic and drilling programs. You should not place undue importance on forward-looking information and should not rely upon this information as of any other date. While Terra Nova may elect to, Terra Nova is under no obligation and does not undertake to update this information at any particular time, except as required by applicable securities law. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE--(Marketwired - Oct. 31, 2016) - Terra Nova Energy Ltd. ("Terra Nova" or the "Company") (TSX VENTURE:TGC)(OTCQX:TNVMF) is pleased to announce the results at the Company's annual general and special meeting held on October 28, 2016 (the "Meeting"). Shareholders voted in favor of all items put forward by the Board of Directors. Shareholders set the number of directors at seven and approved the appointment of Henry Aldorf, Nico Civelli, Steve Harding, Mark Jarvis, Lyle Davis, Robert McMorran and Mark Lawson to the Board of Directors. Shareholders also approved the appointment of the Company's auditors, Dale Matheson Carr-Hilton Labonte LLP, the adoption of the Company's rolling 10% stock option plan and the change of jurisdiction from the province of Alberta to the province of British Columbia (the "Continuance"). The Continuance was completed with an effective date of October 31, 2016. Further, the shareholders approved Carlo Civelli becoming a new "control person" of the Company. On September 27, 2016, subject to TSXV and disinterested shareholder approval, the Company agreed to issue Perseville Investing Inc. ("Perseville") 40,000,000 common shares ("Shares") at a deemed price of $0.05 per share for a deemed value of $2,000,000 in consideration of Perseville assigning to the Company a 30.833% Working Interest ("Interest") in Petroleum Exploration License ("PEL" or "Licenses") 112 and 444, and a 1.47% gross overriding royalty interest on the PELs. The Licenses are located on the western flank of the Cooper Eromanga Basin in the State of South Australia with Terra Nova being the operator. The Company will close the transaction on receipt of final approval from the TSXV. All resolutions received at least 99% approval from the shareholders who voted, either in person or by proxy, at the Meeting. Terra Nova Energy Ltd. is an oil and gas company with a 20.66% working interest in two onshore petroleum exploration licenses ("PELs"), being PEL 112 and PEL 444, located on the western flank of the Cooper Eromanga Basin in the State of South Australia, Australia. Its common shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol "TGC" and its ordinary shares trade in the U.S. on the OTCQX marketplace under the symbol "TNVMF." This news release contains forward-looking information relating to Terra Nova's intentions to conduct the drilling programs and other statements that are not historical facts. Such forward-looking information is subject to important risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from what is currently expected, for example: risks related to oil and gas exploration, development, exploitation, production, marketing and transportation, loss of markets, volatility of commodity prices, currency fluctuations, competition from other producers, inability to retain drilling rigs and other services, reliance on key personnel, and insurance risks. Findings by other oil and gas issuers does not necessarily indicate that Terra Nova will be successful in making such findings in the Western Flank. In making such forward- looking statements, Terra Nova has relied upon certain assumptions relating to geological settings, commodity prices, the stability of markets and currencies and the availability of capital to Terra Nova in order to continue with the seismic and drilling programs. You should not place undue importance on forward-looking information and should not rely upon this information as of any other date. While Terra Nova may elect to, Terra Nova is under no obligation and does not undertake to update this information at any particular time, except as required by applicable securities law. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


Harvey P.J.,Nova Energy | Macdonald D.J.,TriJac Geological Consulting Ltd
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2013

Deposition of the Abenaki Formation carbonate complex began during the Middle Jurassic, shortly after the interpreted onset of western Atlantic sea-floor spreading, and continued through Late Jurassic time, resulting in thick carbonate deposits along the Jurassic shelf edge. This carbonate complex was the exploration target of 16 wells drilled from 1970 to 1989. Although there were no discoveries in the carbonate objectives, oil was discovered in Cretaceous siliciclastics in structural drape closures overlying the carbonate margin. The Province of Nova Scotia decided to undertake a technical study to further the interest in the carbonate bank objective while the shallow oil play was being developed. Subsequently, in 1989, two studies were undertaken to investigate a porosity play in the Jurassic Baccaro Member of the Abenaki Formation because significant porosity had been encountered in a number of the dry holes that targeted the carbonate margin, particularly the Demascota G-32 well. The first study modelled porosity in several wells utilizing one-dimensional (1D) and wedge models, and amplitude v. offset (AVO) models. The Demascota G-32 well was used to seismically identify and model several types of potential hydrocarbon-bearing prospects along the bank. Modelling indicated that zones of 11-14% porosity with a minimum thickness of 10 m could be detected. However, a thickness of 50 m was required to resolve the top and base of the porosity. The AVO model for the Demascota well demonstrated that an increase in amplitude with offset (AVO effect) in the presence of gas and fracturing (which dramatically decreases Poisson's ratio) should be detectable and may be useful in identifying prospects in this type of play. The assumption of a fractured reservoir was reasonable due to the number of seismically identified faults at the front of the carbonate bank and the description of fractures in conventional cores taken in the Baccaro Member. The second study involved acquiring a pair of dip and strike seismic lines adjacent to the Demascota well and reprocessing them to preserve relative amplitudes while providing a high-resolution, stacked section, especially at the Baccaro Member level. Interpretation of these lines was undertaken in the AVO domain. An increase in amplitude with offset was observed up-dip of the Demascota G-32 well that indicated a fractured, gas-filled porous zone could exist up-dip of this well. Following these studies, 3D seismic data was acquired over the shallower Panuke Oil Field and similar studies were conducted on that dataset in 1997. As a result, Encana drilled a structural high containing bright amplitude reflectors and encountered over 100 m of net gas pay in vuggy and cavernous limestones and dolomites in 1999. This validated the earlier studies, confirming that these reservoirs could be seen on seismic data and proved that economic gas reservoirs exist in the carbonate bank. These results should encourage exploration along the extensive, sparsely drilled Late Jurassic carbonate margins bounding offshore eastern North America and its conjugates in the Central Atlantic Region. © The Geological Society of London 2013.


Two end-member models have been invoked to accommodate the Mesozoic dispersal of the supercontinent Pangaea. In one end-member, the opening of the Atlantic Ocean is inferred to have been balanced by the closure of the Panthalassan Ocean related to subduction off the western margins of the Americas. In the other end-member model, the opening of the Atlantic Ocean is accommodated by the closure of the paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans linked to subduction off the southern margins of Eurasia. Here, I re-evaluate global plate circulation data compiled for the middle Mesozoic Era. The present evaluation confirms that closure of the paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans compensated for the early opening of the central Atlantic and proto-Caribbean oceans. This result implies that the tectonic evolution of the North American Cordillera was independent from the processes governing Pangaea breakup in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous Periods. As well, the opening Atlantic and closing Tethys realm must have been tectonically connected through the Mediterranean region in terms of a transform fault or point yet to be factored into geological interpretations. Tight geometric and kinematic correlations evident between the opening Atlantic and closing Tethyan domains can be demonstrated, which are most readily explained if the forces causing Pangaea breakup were transmitted from the Tethyan domain into the Atlantic domain, and not vice versa. Thus, slab sinking-based forces produced during the evolution of the Tethyan subduction zones are hypothesized to have controlled the early Atlantic breakup of Pangaea. © 2015 Geological Society of America.


Keppie F.,Nova Energy
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2016

Mechanisms that can explain the Mesozoic motion of Pangaea in a palaeomagnetic mantle reference frame may also be able to explain its breakup. Calculations indicate that Pangaea moved along a non-rigid path in the mantle frame between the late Triassic and early Jurassic. The breakup of Pangaea may have happened as a response to this non-rigid motion. Tectonic forces applied to the margins of Pangaea as a consequence of subduction at its peripheries can explain both the motion and deformation of Pangaea with a single mechanism. In contrast, mantle forces applied to the base of Pangaea appear to be inconsistent with the kinematic constraints and do not explain the change in supercontinent motion that accompanied the breakup event. Top-down plate tectonics are inferred to have caused the breakup of Pangaea. Strong coupling between the mantle and lithosphere may not have been the case during the Phanerozoic eon when the Pangaean supercontinent formed and subsequently dispersed. Gold Open Access: This article is published under the terms of the CC-BY 3.0 license. © 2016 The Geological Society of London.


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