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Nottingham, United Kingdom

Adhikaree J.,Nottingham City Hospital
BMJ case reports | Year: 2014

Denosumab, a fully humanised monoclonal antibody, is licensed for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, hormone ablation-induced bone loss and for prevention of skeleton-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumours. In pivotal phase 3 randomised trials, denosumab caused profound hypocalcaemia in patients with normocalcaemia despite oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. This significant hypocalcaemic effect can be exploited to treat hypercalcaemia of malignancy (HCM). Recent reports from the USA suggest that denosumab is an effective treatment of HCM. According to our knowledge, we report the first two cases in UK with bisphosphonate refractory hypercalcaemia who responded to denosumab injections. Our first case gained 7 months of stabilisation of hypercalcaemia following prolonged admissions with life-threatening levels, while our second case achieved rapid normalisation of serum calcium levels for the first time in 14 months. We conclude that denosumab should be the treatment of choice for patients with bisphosphonate refractory hypercalcaemia. Source

Courtney P.,Nottingham City Hospital | Doherty M.,Academic Rheumatology
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2013

Joint aspiration/injection and synovial fluid (SF) analysis are both invaluable procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. This chapter addresses (1) the indications, technical principles, expected benefits and risks of aspiration and injection of intra-articular corticosteroid and (2) practical aspects relating to SF analysis, especially in relation to crystal identification. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids is a well-established procedure that produces rapid pain relief and resolution of inflammation in most injected joints. The knee is the most common site to require aspiration although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining SF. The technique involves only knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used, it is very safe. Analysis of aspirated SF is helpful in the differential diagnosis of arthritis and is the definitive method for diagnosis of septic arthritis and crystal arthritis. The gross appearance of SF can provide useful diagnostic information in terms of the degree of joint inflammation and presence of haemarthrosis. Microbiological studies of SF are the key to the confirmation of infectious conditions. Increasing joint inflammation associates with increased SF volume, reduced viscosity, increasing turbidity and cell count and increasing ratio of polymorphonuclear:mononuclear cells, but such changes are non-specific and must be interpreted in the clinical setting. However, detection of SF monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, even from un-inflamed joints during intercritical periods, allows a precise diagnosis of gout and calcium pyrophosphate crystal-related arthritis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Simpson K.,Nottingham City Hospital
Nursing Times | Year: 2016

People with dementia are more likely to experience a decline in function, fall or fracture when admitted to hospital than the general hospital population. Informal carers' views were sought on the care their relative with dementia received in hospital. Participants were concerned about a lack of essential nursing care, harmful incidents, a decline in patient function, poor staff communication and carers' needs not being acknowledged. Care can be improved through further training, more effective communication, consideration of the appropriate place to care for people and more use of carers' knowledge. Source

Theologou T.,Nottingham City Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

The intra aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a mechanical assist device which improves cardiac function. The device has a well-established place in algorithms for managing low cardiac output following cardiac surgery. There is increasing evidence that certain cardiac surgery patients benefit from a period of preoperative augmentation with the intra aortic balloon pump. To determine the effect of the preoperative intra aortic balloon pump on mortality and morbidity in a number of different patients groups undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2009), MEDLINE (2000 to August 2009), EMBASE (1998 to August 2009), BIOSIS previews (1969 to August 2009) and ISI Proceedings (1990 to August 2009) were searched. References and ongoing registers of studies were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any size or length were included. Papers were assessed for inclusion by two authors independently and differences were settled by consensus with a third author. Date are presented in the form of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Six trials were included (five on-pump and one off-pump). This update adds the results of one further trial. Data from a total of 255 patients were included in the meta-analysis of mortality outcomes; all on-pump. Generally, the patients were considered as "high risk" and 132 were treated preoperatively with IABP and 123 served as controls. There were four hospital deaths in the intervention arm and 23 in the non-intervention arm (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.41; P<0.0001). In a subgroup analysis, low cardiac index (<2.0 L/min/m(2)) was noted in 21 out of 105 patients in the treatment arm and 59 patients out of 88 in the non-treatment arm (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.25; P<0.00001). An off-pump versus on-pump analysis was not possible due to the limited number of off-pump studies. However a single well-conducted RCT suggested favourable effect of the preoperative IABP in off-pump patients. Evidence suggests that preoperative IABP may have a beneficial effect on mortality and morbidity in specific high risk patient groups undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, however there are many problems with the quality, validity and generalisability of the trials. However, the available evidence is not robust enough to extend the use of IABP to truly elective, high risk patients. Defining more precisely which patient groups may benefit would be the challenge for the future. Source

James R.,Nottingham Breast Institute | McCulley S.J.,Nottingham City Hospital | Macmillan R.D.,Nottingham Breast Institute
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2015

Background The recommendations of the UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Breast Cancer (2013) have been endorsed recently by the UK Association of Breast Surgeons and are in line with the 2007 Cancer Reform Strategy, which states that treatment in older British women should be equivalent to that in younger patients unless precluded by co-morbidity or patient choice. Oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques are increasingly available to women with breast cancer. A review of the literature was carried out to investigate use of these techniques in older patients. Methods A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify studies relating to oncoplastic and reconstructive surgery in the elderly. Results and conclusion Nine studies were identified and included in the review. Older patients undergoing reconstruction, particularly autologous reconstruction, have outcomes that are at least as good as those achieved in younger patients, yet are far less likely to be offered these techniques. Issues influencing oncoplastic and reconstructive surgery in the elderly include: lack of standard pathways of care, concerns regarding higher operative risk, lack of evidence regarding outcomes, preconceptions regarding body image and lack of engagement with the decision-making process. A minority of older women are likely to accept reconstruction, but those who do are pleased with the results and experience good quality of life. There is now a range of safe oncoplastic and reconstructive options that could be considered as an alternative to standard mastectomy or wide local excision in older patients. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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