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Tsukuba, Japan

Miyashita T.,Juntendo University | Morimoto S.,Juntendo University | Fujishiro M.,Juntendo University | Hayakawa K.,Juntendo University | And 8 more authors.
Autoimmunity | Year: 2016

We previously reported the importance of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CTGF contains four distinct modules connected in tandem, namely insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-like, von Willebrand factor (vWF) type C repeat, thrombospondin type 1 (TSP-1) repeat, and carboxyl-terminal (CT) modules. The relationships between each of these modules of CTGF and RA remain unknown. Here, we analyzed how inhibition of each CTGF module affects the pathophysiology of RA. We conducted stimulation and suppression experiments on synovial cells (MH7A) obtained from patients with RA. Moreover, we examined angiogenesis by means of a tube-formation assay performed using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and we used tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining to analyze osteoclastogenesis. Our results showed that M-CSF/RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis was enhanced when CTGF was added, but the effect of CTGF was neutralized by mAbs against CTGF modules 1-4. Furthermore, CTGF treatment of HUVECs induced formation of tubular networks, which resulted in acceleration of the angiogenesis of RA synoviocytes, and quantification showed that this tubular-network formation was also disrupted by anti-CTGF module 1-4 mAbs. Lastly, TNF-α enhanced the expression of CTGF and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) in MH7A cells, and this enhancement was potently neutralized by mAbs against CTGF modules 1, 3 and 4. Thus, our results indicate that not only a mAb against CTGF but also mAbs against each specific module of CTGF might serve as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of RA. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Nozawa K.,Juntendo University | Fujishiro M.,Juntendo University | Kawasaki M.,Juntendo University | Yamaguchi A.,Juntendo University | And 10 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2013

Objective We have shown that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of blockade of the CTGF pathway on the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Methods Arthritis was induced in DBA/1J mice by immunization with a combination of type II collagen (CII) and Freund's complete adjuvant. We evaluated the development of arthritis in mice with CIA left untreated versus treated with neutralizing anti-CTGF monoclonal antibody (mAb). Results Inhibition of CTGF in mice treated with neutralizing anti-CTGF mAb significantly ameliorated arthritis compared to the untreated mice with CIA. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 3 were reduced by anti-CTGF mAb treatment. Moreover, blockade of CTGF decreased interleukin-17 expression on purified CD4+ T lymphocytes. Although the expression of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt gene was not suppressed by anti-CTGF mAb treatment, that of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) and IκBζ (Nfkbiz), which are other important molecules for the differentiation of Th17 cells, was suppressed. In addition, blockade of CTGF inhibited pathologic proliferation of T lymphocytes in response to CII restimulation in vitro. Moreover, aberrant osteoclastogenesis in mice with CIA was restored by anti-CTGF mAb treatment. Conclusion Our findings indicate that blockade of CTGF prevents the progression of arthritis in mice with CIA. Anti-CTGF mAb treatment suppresses pathologic T cell function and restores aberrant osteoclastogenesis in mice with CIA. CTGF may become a new target for the treatment of RA. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Takeo T.,Kumamoto University | Kondo T.,Kumamoto University | Haruguchi Y.,Kumamoto University | Fukumoto K.,Kumamoto University | And 14 more authors.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science | Year: 2010

At refrigerated temperatures, mouse embryos can maintain developmental ability for short periods. Previously, we succeeded in transporting vitrified and warmed 2-cell mouse embryos while maintaining developmental ability at refrigerated temperatures for 50 h. Transport of nonfrozen embryos is an easier and more useful means of exchanging genetically engineered mice between laboratories than is transport of cryopreserved embryos. Here we examined the developmental ability of transported 2-cell embryos that were produced through in vitro fertilization using cryopreserved sperm. Results show that 2-cell embryos produced by cryopreserved sperm can develop into blastocysts after cold storage for 24, 48, and 72 h. Transported 2-cell embryos produced by cryopreserved sperm yielded a favorable number of pups in all of the receiving laboratories after transport lasting 48 to 52 h. In summary, cold storage and transport of 2-cell embryos derived from cryopreserved sperm at refrigerated temperatures provides a novel means of transporting genetically engineered mice as an alternative to the transport of cryopreserved embryos and sperm. Copyright 2010 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

Kawarai S.,Azabu University | Kawarai S.,Tokyo University of Science | Ishihara J.,Nosan Corporation | Masuda K.,Animal Allergy Clinical Laboratories | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2010

There has been a need for improvement of the elimination diet used for diagnosis of adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs. Recently, a novel elimination diet composed of a mixture of amino acids and potatoes was developed. We evaluated the efficacy of the elimination diet for diagnosis of AFR in dogs. Twenty dogs that were suspected to have allergic dermatitis were enrolled in a 2-month food elimination trial using the diet. Before and after the trial, the clinical symptoms were evaluated based on the change in canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI), pruritus score and medication score. Of the 20 dogs, 15 completed the food elimination trial. The remaining 5 dogs were removed from the trial because of diet unpalatability, skin disease progression or diarrhea. On the basis of evaluation of the clinical scores, we observed that the clinical symptoms improved in 11 of the 15 dogs that completed the food elimination trial. Provocative challenge was performed in 10 of the 11 dogs that showed improvement in their clinical symptoms. Of the 10 dogs, 7 were diagnosed as having AFR against food ingredients such as pork, beef, chicken and wheat because their skin symptoms reappeared after intake of these ingredients. The results of the food elimination trial and the provocative challenge indicated the usefulness of the novel elimination diet for diagnosis of AFR.

Miyazaki O.,Sekisui Medical Co. | Kurashita S.,Sekisui Medical Co. | Fukamachi I.,Sekisui Medical Co. | Endo K.,Nosan Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Background: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) may be a potential marker of fibrosis. However, platelet-derived CTGF may be released into the plasma by platelet activation during or after blood collection, thereby interfering with accurate determination of the true plasma CTGF level. Plasma CTGF exists as the N-terminal CTGF fragment (N-fragment), composed of modules 1 and 2, whereas platelet CTGF exists as full-length CTGF (full-length), composed of modules 1-4. We perceived the need to develop a method for distinguishing between the N-fragment and full-length CTGF levels, so that the true plasma and serum CTGF (N-fragment) levels could be accurately determined. Methods: Full-length levels were determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two monoclonal antibodies recognizing modules 1 and 4, respectively (M1/4 ELISA). Total CTGF (full-length CTGF plus N-terminal CTGF) levels were determined by a sandwich ELISA using two monoclonal antibodies recognizing modules 1 and 2, respectively (M1/2 ELISA). N-terminal CTGF levels were determined by subtracting the full-length levels from the total CTGF levels. Results: Both the M1/2 and M1/4 ELISAs showed good analytical performance. When the CTGF levels of plasma and serum collected simultaneously from the same subject were compared, the N-fragment levels determined by the subtraction method were the same, in spite of the fact that full-length CTGF was present in the sample. Conclusion: N-fragment levels in plasma and serum can be accurately determined by this subtraction method, even if full-length CTGF in platelets is released during or after blood collection.

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